Designer enediynes generate DNA breaks, interstrand cross-links, or both, with concomitant changes in the regulation of DNA damage responses.

PNAS 104(45):17632 (2007) PMID 17978180 PMCID PMC2077023

The ability of the radiomimetic anticancer enediyne C-1027 to induce ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR)-independent damage responses was discovered to reside in its unique ability to concurrently generate robust amounts of double-strand breaks (DSBs) and interstrand cross-links (ICLs) in cellular DNA. Furthermore, a single substitution to the chromophore's benzoxazolinate moiety shifted DNA damage to primarily ICLs and an ATR- but not ATM-dependent damage response. In contrast, single substitutions of the chromophore's beta-amino acid component shifted DNA damage to primarily DSBs, consistent with its induction of conventional ATM-dependent damage responses of the type generated by ionizing radiation and other radiomimetics. Thus, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like protein kinase regulation of DNA damage responses is dictated by the relative proportions of DSBs and ICLs.