1. Characterization of Three-Dimensional Retinal Tissue Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Adherent Monolayer Cultures.

    Stem Cells and Development 24(23):2778 (2015) PMID 26283078 PMCID PMC4653822

    Stem cell-based therapy of retinal degenerative conditions is a promising modality to treat blindness, but requires new strategies to improve the number of functionally integrating cells. Grafting semidifferentiated retinal tissue rather than progenitors allows preservation of tissue structure a...
  2. All spiking, sustained ON displaced amacrine cells receive gap-junction input from melanopsin ganglion cells.

    Current Biology 25(21):2763 (2015) PMID 26441349 PMCID PMC4631663

    Retinal neurons exhibit sustained versus transient light responses, which are thought to encode low- and high-frequency stimuli, respectively. This dichotomy has been recognized since the earliest intracellular recordings from the 1960s, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood...
  3. Melatonin Suppression by Light in Humans Is More Sensitive Than Previously Reported.

    Journal of Biological Rhythms 30(4):351 (2015) PMID 26017927 PMCID PMC4499476

    The retina drives various non-image-forming photoresponses, including circadian photoentrainment and pupil constriction. Previous investigators showed that in humans, photic suppression of the clock-controlled hormone melatonin is most sensitive to 460-nm blue light, with a threshold of ~12 log ...
  4. The rat retina has five types of ganglion-cell photoreceptors.

    Experimental Eye Research 130:17 (2015) PMID 25450063 PMCID PMC4276437

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are inner retinal photoreceptors that mediate non-image-forming visual functions, e.g. pupillary constriction, regulation of pineal melatonin release, and circadian photoentrainment. Five types of ipRGCs were recently discovered in mou...
  5. The role of Zic genes in inner ear development in the mouse: Exploring mutant mouse phenotypes.

    Developmental Dynamics 243(11):1487 (2014) PMID 25178196 PMCID PMC4206579

    Murine Zic genes (Zic1-5) are expressed in the dorsal hindbrain and in periotic mesenchyme (POM) adjacent to the developing inner ear. Zic genes are involved in developmental signaling pathways in many organ systems, including the ear, although their exact roles haven't been fully elucidated. Th...
  6. Spatiotemporal expression of Zic genes during vertebrate inner ear development.

    Developmental Dynamics 242(7):897 (2013) PMID 23606270 PMCID PMC3771324

    Inner ear development involves signaling from surrounding tissues, including the adjacent hindbrain, periotic mesenchyme, and notochord. These signals include SHH, FGFs, BMPs, and WNTs from the hindbrain and SHH from the notochord. Zic genes, which are expressed in the dorsal neural tube and act...
  7. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor acts as a neurotrophin in the developing inner ear.

    Development 139(24):4666 (2012) PMID 23172918 PMCID PMC3509728

    This study is the first to demonstrate that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an immune system 'inflammatory' cytokine that is released by the developing otocyst, plays a role in regulating early innervation of the mouse and chick inner ear. We demonstrate that MIF is a major bioacti...
  8. Identification, characterization, and expression pattern of the chicken EKLF gene.

    Developmental Dynamics 235(7):1933 (2006) PMID 16680725

    EKLF/KLF1 was the first of the Kr├╝ppel-like factors (KLFs) to be identified in mammals and plays an important role in primitive and definitive erythropoiesis. Here, we identify and characterize EKLF in the chicken (cEKLF). The predicted amino acid sequence of the zinc finger region of cEKLF is a...