1. All spiking, sustained ON displaced amacrine cells receive gap-junction input from melanopsin ganglion cells.

    Current Biology 25(21):2763 (2015) PMID 26441349 PMCID PMC4631663

    Retinal neurons exhibit sustained versus transient light responses, which are thought to encode low- and high-frequency stimuli, respectively. This dichotomy has been recognized since the earliest intracellular recordings from the 1960s, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood...
  2. Melatonin Suppression by Light in Humans Is More Sensitive Than Previously Reported.

    Journal of Biological Rhythms 30(4):351 (2015) PMID 26017927 PMCID PMC4499476

    The retina drives various non-image-forming photoresponses, including circadian photoentrainment and pupil constriction. Previous investigators showed that in humans, photic suppression of the clock-controlled hormone melatonin is most sensitive to 460-nm blue light, with a threshold of ~12 log ...
  3. The rat retina has five types of ganglion-cell photoreceptors.

    Experimental Eye Research 130:17 (2015) PMID 25450063 PMCID PMC4276437

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are inner retinal photoreceptors that mediate non-image-forming visual functions, e.g. pupillary constriction, regulation of pineal melatonin release, and circadian photoentrainment. Five types of ipRGCs were recently discovered in mou...