The composition of the microbiota modulates allograft rejection.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 126(7):2736 (2016)
Transplantation is the only cure for end-stage organ failure, but without immunosuppression, T cells rapidly reject allografts. While genetic disparities between donor and recipient are major determinants of the kinetics of transplant rejection, little is known about the contribution of environm...
What's LPS Got to Do with It? A Role for Gut LPS Variants in Driving Autoimmune and Allergic Disease.
Cell Host & Microbe 19(5):572 (2016)
The bacterial communities that live in and on our bodies have a profound influence on our health. In a new paper in Cell, Vatanen et al. (2016) report that the composition of the early-life gut microbiome, particularly those species producing lipopolysaccharide, influences the onset of autoimmun...
The Microbiome, Timing, and Barrier Function in the Context of Allergic Disease.
Immunity 44(4):728 (2016)
Allergic disease affects millions. Despite many advances in our understanding of the immune system in the past century, the physiologic underpinning for the existence of allergy remains largely mysterious. Food allergies, in particular, have increased dramatically in recent years, adding a new s...
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants.
ISME Journal 10(3):742 (2016)
Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microb...
The role of the commensal microbiota in the regulation of tolerance to dietary allergens.
Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 15(3):243 (2015)
We review the evidence that environmental stimuli that perturb naturally selected host-microbe interactions are driving the increasing prevalence of food allergy and examine the mechanisms by which commensal bacteria regulate tolerance to dietary allergens.
Antibiotic use and the consumption of ...
Indigenous bacteria from the gut microbiota regulate host serotonin biosynthesis.
Cell 161(2):264 (2015)
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract contains much of the body's serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), but mechanisms controlling the metabolism of gut-derived 5-HT remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the microbiota plays a critical role in regulating host 5-HT. Indigenous spore-forming bacter...
Our interface with the built environment: immunity and the indoor microbiota.
Trends in Immunology 36(3):121 (2015)
The rise of urbanization and an increasingly indoor lifestyle has affected human interactions with our microbiota in unprecedented ways. We discuss how this lifestyle may influence immune development and function, and argue that it is time that we examined ways to manipulate the indoor environme...
Cellular and molecular pathways through which commensal bacteria modulate sensitization to dietary antigens.
Current Opinion in Immunology 31:79 (2014)
Food allergies are a growing public health concern. The rapidly increasing prevalence of allergic disease cannot be explained by genetic variation alone, suggesting a role for gene-by-environment interactions. The bacteria that colonize barrier surfaces, often referred to as the commensal microb...
The role of commensal bacteria in the regulation of sensitization to food allergens.
FEBS Letters 588(22):4258 (2014)
The prevalence of life-threatening anaphylactic responses to food is rising at an alarming rate. The emerging role of the gut microbiota in regulating food allergen sensitization may help explain this trend. The mechanisms by which commensal bacteria influence sensitization to dietary antigens a...
TLR4 regulates IFN-γ and IL-17 production by both thymic and induced Foxp3+ Tregs during intestinal inflammation.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology 96(5):895 (2014)
Tregs play a crucial role in the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis. However, significant numbers of Foxp3(+) Tregs accumulate in the inflamed lesions in experimental colitis and in IBD patients. Treg production of the proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and/or IL-17 may arguably explain t...
Health: The weighty costs of non-caloric sweeteners.
Nature 514(7521):176 (2014)
Commensal bacteria protect against food allergen sensitization.
PNAS 111(36):13145 (2014)
Environmentally induced alterations in the commensal microbiota have been implicated in the increasing prevalence of food allergy. We show here that sensitization to a food allergen is increased in mice that have been treated with antibiotics or are devoid of a commensal microbiota. By selective...
Microbial regulation of allergic responses to food.
Seminars in Immunopathology 34(5):671 (2012)
The incidence of food allergy in developed countries is rising at a rate that cannot be attributed to genetic variation alone. In this review, we discuss the environmental factors that may contribute to the increasing prevalence of potentially fatal anaphylactic responses to food. Decreased expo...
Chitin microparticles for the control of intestinal inflammation.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 18(9):1698 (2012)
Chitin is a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine with the ability to regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the detailed mechanisms of chitin-mediated regulation of intestinal inflammation are only partially known.
In this study chitin microparticles (CMPs) or phosphate-buffered salin...
Introduction to Special Issue on Food Allergy.
Seminars in Immunopathology 34(5):615 (2012)
Multivariate modeling identifies neutrophil- and Th17-related factors as differential serum biomarkers of chronic murine colitis.
PLoS ONE 5(10):e13277 (2010)
Diagnosis of chronic intestinal inflammation, which characterizes inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), along with prediction of disease state is hindered by the availability of predictive serum biomarker. Serum biomarkers predictive of disease state will improve trials for therapeutic intervention,...
Toll-like receptor 4-mediated regulation of spontaneous Helicobacter-dependent colitis in IL-10-deficient mice.
Gastroenterology 137(4):1380 (2009)
The commensal microbiota is believed to have an important role in regulating immune responsiveness and preventing intestinal inflammation. Intestinal microbes produce signals that regulate inflammation via Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, but the mechanisms of this process are poorly understo...
Vaccine-induced antibody isotypes are skewed by impaired CD4 T cell and invariant NKT cell effector responses in MyD88-deficient mice.
Journal of Immunology 183(4):2252 (2009)
The requirement for TLR signaling in the initiation of an Ag-specific Ab response is controversial. In this report we show that a novel OVA-expressing recombinant Salmonella vaccine (Salmonella-OVA) elicits a Th1-biased cell-mediated and serum Ab response upon oral or i.p. immunization of C57BL/...
Immunologic responses to Vibrio cholerae in patients co-infected with intestinal parasites in Bangladesh.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 3(3):e403 (2009)
Infection with intestinal helminths is common and may contribute to the decreased efficacy of Vibrio cholerae vaccines in endemic compared to non-endemic areas. However, the immunomodulatory effects of concomitant intestinal parasitic infection in cholera patients have not been systematically ev...
Infection with parasitic nematodes confounds vaccination efficacy.
Veterinary Parasitology 148(1):14 (2007)
T helper (Th) cells produce signature cytokine patterns, induced largely by intracellular versus extracellular pathogens that provide the cellular and molecular basis for counter regulatory expression of protective immunity during concurrent infections. The production of IL-12 and IFN-gamma, for...