Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of sodium zirconium cyclosilicate [ZS-9] in the treatment of hyperkalemia.
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology 12(5):567 (2016)
Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte disorder that arises from dysfunctional homeostatic mechanisms or as a consequence of decreased renal function. Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS-9) is a potential new therapy for hyperkalemia in both acute and chronic settings.
Here we discuss mechanisms of...
Potential New Agents for the Management of Hyperkalemia.
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs 16(1):19 (2016)
Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte disturbance with multiple potential etiologies. It is usually observed in the setting of reduced renal function. Mild to moderate hyperkalemia is usually asymptomatic, but is associated with poor prognosis. When severe, hyperkalemia may cause serious acute ca...
Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate in hyperkalemia.
New England Journal of Medicine 372(3):222 (2015)
Hyperkalemia (serum potassium level, >5.0 mmol per liter) is associated with increased mortality among patients with heart failure, chronic kidney disease, or diabetes. We investigated whether sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS-9), a novel selective cation exchanger, could lower serum potassium ...
Residual proteinuria and eGFR predict progression of renal impairment within 2 years in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy who are receiving optimal treatment with angiotensin receptor blockers.
Nephrology 18(7):516 (2013)
Proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) predict progression of renal impairment in type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN) but are they still predictive when these patients are treated with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB)? We investigated whether residual (after ≥3 months of ARB...
Pyridorin in type 2 diabetic nephropathy.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 23(1):131 (2012)
Pyridoxamine dihydrochloride (Pyridorin, NephroGenex) inhibits formation of advanced glycation end products and scavenges reactive oxygen species and toxic carbonyls, but whether these actions translate into renoprotective effects is unknown. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled ...
Sulodexide fails to demonstrate renoprotection in overt type 2 diabetic nephropathy.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 23(1):123 (2012)
Sulodexide, a mixture of naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide components, has been reported to reduce albuminuria in patients with diabetes, but it is unknown whether it is renoprotective. This study reports the results from the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, sulod...
Relative incidence of ESRD versus cardiovascular mortality in proteinuric type 2 diabetes and nephropathy: results from the DIAMETRIC (Diabetes Mellitus Treatment for Renal Insufficiency Consortium) database.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 59(1):75 (2012)
Previous studies have shown that patients with chronic kidney disease, including those with diabetic nephropathy, are more likely to die of cardiovascular disease than reach end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This analysis was conducted to determine whether ESRD is a more common outcome than cardio...
Sulodexide for kidney protection in type 2 diabetes patients with microalbuminuria: a randomized controlled trial.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 58(5):729 (2011)
Sulodexide, a heterogenous group of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, includes low-molecular-weight heparin (~80% ± 8%), high-molecular-weight heparin (~5% ± 3%), and dermatan (~20% ± 8%), with a mean molecular weight of ~9 kDa. The drug is absorbed orally and has no anticoagulant effect in the doses...
Proteinuria in type 2 diabetic patients with renal impairment: the changing face of diabetic nephropathy.
Nephron Clinical Practice 118(4):c331 (2011)
Type 2 diabetic nephropathy (type 2 DN) patients traditionally develop significant proteinuria prior to the development of renal impairment. However, this clinical paradigm, based on observations prior to the widespread usage of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin rece...
Thin basement membrane nephropathy and IgA glomerulonephritis: can they be distinguished without renal biopsy?
Nephrology 12(5):481 (2007)
Thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN) and IgA glomerulonephritis (IgA gn) are the most common primary glomerular conditions diagnosed on renal biopsy, performed for microscopic haematuria or microscopic haematuria with proteinuria. While up to 50% of patients with IgA gn will develop chronic...
Systemic and vascular inflammation is elevated in early IgA and type 1 diabetic nephropathies and relates to vascular disease risk factors and renal function.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 20(11):2420 (2005)
Inflammation is implicated in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in end-stage renal failure (ESRF). Its importance in early renal disease is yet to be defined.
Serum levels of systemic and vascular inflammatory markers in early IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and control subjects were measured an...
Hematuria in thin basement membrane nephropathy.
Seminars in Nephrology 25(3):146 (2005)
Thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN) often is diagnosed clinically when there is persistent dysmorphic or glomerular hematuria, but minimal proteinuria, normal kidney function, and no other obvious cause. This study investigated hematuria in patients with TBMN. A total of 112 patients with ...