1. Concepts of immunotherapy for glioma.

    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 123(3):323 (2015) PMID 26070552 PMCID PMC4498978

    Immunotherapy is coming to the fore as a viable anti-cancer treatment modality, even in poorly immunogenic cancers such as glioblastoma (GBM). Accumulating evidence suggests that the central nervous system may not be impervious to tumor-specific immune cells and could be an adequate substrate fo...
  2. Ubiquitin-dependent regulation of Foxp3 and Treg function.

    Immunological Reviews 266(1):27 (2015) PMID 26085205

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells are crucial enforcers of immune homeostasis. Their characteristic suppressive function largely arises from an equally unique pattern of gene expression. A complex network of factors and processes contribute to this 'signature' Treg gene expression landscape. Many of the...
  3. PD-1 Blockade in Tumors with Mismatch-Repair Deficiency.

    New England Journal of Medicine 372(26):2509 (2015) PMID 26028255 PMCID PMC4481136

    Somatic mutations have the potential to encode "non-self" immunogenic antigens. We hypothesized that tumors with a large number of somatic mutations due to mismatch-repair defects may be susceptible to immune checkpoint blockade. We conducted a phase 2 study to evaluate the clinical activity of ...
  4. Overall Survival and Long-Term Safety of Nivolumab (Anti-Programmed Death 1 Antibody, BMS-936558, ONO-4538) in Patients With Previously Treated Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Journal of Clinical Oncology 33(18):2004 (2015) PMID 25897158

    Programmed death 1 is an immune checkpoint that suppresses antitumor immunity. Nivolumab, a fully human immunoglobulin G4 programmed death 1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, was active and generally well tolerated in patients with advanced solid tumors treated in a phase I trial with expans...
  5. Survival, Durable Response, and Long-Term Safety in Patients With Previously Treated Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Receiving Nivolumab.

    Journal of Clinical Oncology 33(18):2013 (2015) PMID 25800770

    Blockade of the programmed death-1 inhibitory cell-surface molecule on immune cells using the fully human immunoglobulin G4 antibody nivolumab mediates tumor regression in a portion of patients with advanced treatment-refractory solid tumors. We report clinical activity, survival, and long-term ...
  6. Metabolism links bacterial biofilms and colon carcinogenesis.

    Cell Metabolism 21(6):891 (2015) PMID 25959674 PMCID PMC4456201

    Bacterial biofilms in the colon alter the host tissue microenvironment. A role for biofilms in colon cancer metabolism has been suggested but to date has not been evaluated. Using metabolomics, we investigated the metabolic influence that microbial biofilms have on colon tissues and the related ...
  7. Metabolic control of type 1 regulatory T cell differentiation by AHR and HIF1-α.

    Nature Medicine 21(6):638 (2015) PMID 26005855 PMCID PMC4476246

    Our understanding of the pathways that regulate lymphocyte metabolism, as well as the effects of metabolism and its products on the immune response, is still limited. We report that a metabolic program controlled by the transcription factors hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1-α) and aryl hydrocar...
  8. Distinct mechanisms of tumor resistance to NK killing: of mice and men.

    Immunity 42(4):605 (2015) PMID 25902479

    Tumors cells can release natural killer (NK) cell ligands for activating receptor NKG2D that are thought to inhibit NK cell function. In a recent issue of Science, Deng et al. (2015) show that, unexpectedly, a soluble NKG2D ligand can enhance anti-tumor NK cell activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevie...
  9. STING agonist formulated cancer vaccines can cure established tumors resistant to PD-1 blockade.

    Science Translational Medicine 7(283):283ra52 (2015) PMID 25877890 PMCID PMC4504692

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is a cytosolic receptor that senses both exogenous and endogenous cytosolic cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), activating TBK1/IRF3 (interferon regulatory factor 3), NF-κB (nuclear factor κB), and STAT6 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 6) signali...
  10. Immune checkpoint blockade: a common denominator approach to cancer therapy.

    Cancer Cell 27(4):450 (2015) PMID 25858804 PMCID PMC4400238

    The immune system recognizes and is poised to eliminate cancer but is held in check by inhibitory receptors and ligands. These immune checkpoint pathways, which normally maintain self-tolerance and limit collateral tissue damage during anti-microbial immune responses, can be co-opted by cancer t...
  11. PD-L1 Expression in Melanocytic Lesions Does Not Correlate with the BRAF V600E Mutation.

    Cancer Immunology Research 3(2):110 (2015) PMID 25370533

    PD-L1 expression in melanoma correlates with response to PD-1 pathway-blocking antibodies. Aberrant tumor-cell PD-L1 expression may be oncogene driven and/or induced by IFNγ. Melanomas express PD-L1 in association with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), but the potential contribution of the B...
  12. PD-L1 Expression in Melanocytic Lesions Does Not Correlate with the BRAF V600E Mutation.

    Cancer Immunology Research 3(2):110 (2015) PMID 25370533

    PD-L1 expression in melanoma correlates with response to PD-1 pathway-blocking antibodies. Aberrant tumor-cell PD-L1 expression may be oncogene driven and/or induced by IFNγ. Melanomas express PD-L1 in association with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), but the potential contribution of the B...
  13. PD-L1 Expression in Melanocytic Lesions Does Not Correlate with the BRAF V600E Mutation.

    Cancer Immunology Research 3(2):110 (2015) PMID 25370533 PMCID PMC4324161

    PD-L1 expression in melanoma correlates with response to PD-1 pathway-blocking antibodies. Aberrant tumor-cell PD-L1 expression may be oncogene driven and/or induced by IFNγ. Melanomas express PD-L1 in association with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), but the potential contribution of the B...
  14. PD-L1 expression in melanocytic lesions does not correlate with the BRAF V600E mutation.

    Cancer Immunology Research 3(2):110 (2015) PMID 25370533 PMCID PMC4324161

    PD-L1 expression in melanoma correlates with response to PD-1 pathway-blocking antibodies. Aberrant tumor-cell PD-L1 expression may be oncogene driven and/or induced by IFNγ. Melanomas express PD-L1 in association with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), but the potential contribution of the B...
  15. The Bacteroides fragilis toxin gene is prevalent in the colon mucosa of colorectal cancer patients.

    Clinical Infectious Diseases 60(2):208 (2015) PMID 25305284 PMCID PMC4351371

    Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) produces the Bacteroides fragilis toxin, which has been associated with acute diarrheal disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and colorectal cancer (CRC). ETBF induces colon carcinogenesis in experimental models. Previous human studies have demonstrated...
  16. The Bacteroides fragilis toxin gene is prevalent in the colon mucosa of colorectal cancer patients.

    Clinical Infectious Diseases 60(2):208 (2015) PMID 25305284 PMCID PMC4351371

    Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) produces the Bacteroides fragilis toxin, which has been associated with acute diarrheal disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and colorectal cancer (CRC). ETBF induces colon carcinogenesis in experimental models. Previous human studies have demonstrated...
  17. PD-1, PD-L1, PD-L2 expression in the chordoma microenvironment.

    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 121(2):251 (2015) PMID 25349132

    Chordomas are rare malignant tumors that are postulated to arise from remnants of the notochord. Currently, the interaction between chordomas and the host immune system is poorly understood. The checkpoint protein, PD-1 is expressed by circulating lymphocytes and is a marker of activation and ex...
  18. The vigorous immune microenvironment of microsatellite instable colon cancer is balanced by multiple counter-inhibitory checkpoints.

    Cancer Discovery 5(1):43 (2015) PMID 25358689 PMCID PMC4293246

    We examined the immune microenvironment of primary colorectal cancer using immunohistochemistry, laser capture microdissection/qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, and functional analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. A subset of colorectal cancer displayed high infiltration with activated CD8(+) cytot...
  19. PD-1, PD-L1, PD-L2 expression in the chordoma microenvironment.

    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 121(2):251 (2015) PMID 25349132 PMCID PMC4322919

    Chordomas are rare malignant tumors that are postulated to arise from remnants of the notochord. Currently, the interaction between chordomas and the host immune system is poorly understood. The checkpoint protein, PD-1 is expressed by circulating lymphocytes and is a marker of activation and ex...
  20. The vigorous immune microenvironment of microsatellite instable colon cancer is balanced by multiple counter-inhibitory checkpoints.

    Cancer Discovery 5(1):43 (2015) PMID 25358689 PMCID PMC4293246

    We examined the immune microenvironment of primary colorectal cancer using immunohistochemistry, laser capture microdissection/qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, and functional analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. A subset of colorectal cancer displayed high infiltration with activated CD8(+) cytot...