1. Differences in the Selection Bottleneck between Modes of Sexual Transmission Influence the Genetic Composition of the HIV-1 Founder Virus.

    PLoS Pathogens 12(5):e1005619 (2016) PMID 27163788 PMCID PMC4862634

    Due to the stringent population bottleneck that occurs during sexual HIV-1 transmission, systemic infection is typically established by a limited number of founder viruses. Elucidation of the precise forces influencing the selection of founder viruses may reveal key vulnerabilities that could ai...
  2. Antibody Responses After Analytic Treatment Interruption in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Infected Individuals on Early Initiated Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Open forum infectious diseases 3(2):ofw100 (2016) PMID 27419172 PMCID PMC4943535

    The examination of antibody responses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected individuals in the setting of antiretroviral treatment (ART) interruption can provide insight into the evolution of antibody responses during viral rebound. In this study, we assessed antibody responses in 20 ...
  3. Th1/17 Polarization of CD4 T Cells Supports HIV-1 Persistence during Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Journal of Virology 89(22):11284 (2015) PMID 26339043 PMCID PMC4645661

    The ability to persist long term in latently infected CD4 T cells represents a characteristic feature of HIV-1 infection and the predominant barrier to efforts aiming at viral eradication and cure. Yet, increasing evidence suggests that only small subsets of CD4 T cells with specific development...
  4. Prolonged Antiretroviral Therapy Preserves HIV-1-Specific CD8 T Cells with Stem Cell-Like Properties.

    Journal of Virology 89(15):7829 (2015) PMID 25995260 PMCID PMC4505639

    HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells can influence HIV-1 disease progression during untreated HIV-1 infection, but the functional and phenotypic properties of HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells in individuals treated with suppressive antiretroviral therapy remain less well understood. Here we show that a subgroup...
  5. Multicenter comparison of laboratory performance in cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus viral load testing using international standards.

    Clinical Transplantation 28(12):1416 (2014) PMID 25303316 PMCID PMC4481866

    Infections with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) remain important in solid organ transplantation. Quantitative viral nucleic acid testing is a major advance to patient management. These assays are limited by a lack of standardization, resulting in viral load measurements that d...
  6. High-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity is improved by treatment with antiretroviral therapy in acute human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Open forum infectious diseases 1(3):ofu108 (2014) PMID 25734176 PMCID PMC4324225

    Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD). Reverse cholesterol transport from macrophages may be inhibited by HIV and contribute to increased CVD. Human studies have not invest...
  7. Emergence of individual HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses during primary HIV-1 infection can determine long-term disease outcome.

    Journal of Virology 88(21):12793 (2014) PMID 25165102 PMCID PMC4248916

    Events during primary HIV-1 infection have been shown to be critical for the subsequent rate of disease progression. Early control of viral replication, resolution of clinical symptoms and development of a viral set point have been associated with the emergence of HIV-specific CD8 T cell respons...
  8. Increased frequency and function of KIR2DL1-3⁺ NK cells in primary HIV-1 infection are determined by HLA-C group haplotypes.

    European Journal of Immunology 44(10):2938 (2014) PMID 25043727 PMCID PMC4197106

    The acquisition and maintenance of NK-cell function is mediated by inhibitory killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) through their interaction with HLA class I molecules. Recently, HLA-C expression levels were shown to be correlated with protection against multiple outcomes of HIV-1 in...
  9. Tumor necrosis factor α is associated with viral control and early disease progression in patients with HIV type 1 infection.

    Journal of Infectious Diseases 210(7):1042 (2014) PMID 24688071 PMCID PMC4215080

    Inflammation in early human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease progression is not well characterized. Ninety patients with untreated primary HIV-1 infection were studied to determine associations of inflammatory proteins with early disease progression. High plasma tumor necrosis facto...
  10. Long-term antiretroviral treatment initiated at primary HIV-1 infection affects the size, composition, and decay kinetics of the reservoir of HIV-1-infected CD4 T cells.

    Journal of Virology 88(17):10056 (2014) PMID 24965451 PMCID PMC4136362

    Initiation of antiretroviral therapy during the earliest stages of HIV-1 infection may limit the seeding of a long-lasting viral reservoir, but long-term effects of early antiretroviral treatment initiation remain unknown. Here, we analyzed immunological and virological characteristics of nine p...
  11. Impaired Nef function is associated with early control of HIV-1 viremia.

    Journal of Virology 88(17):10200 (2014) PMID 24965469 PMCID PMC4136354

    Host and viral factors influence the HIV-1 infection course. Reduced Nef function has been observed in HIV-1 controllers during the chronic phase, but the kinetics and mechanisms of Nef attenuation in such individuals remain unclear. We examined plasma RNA-derived Nef clones from 10 recently inf...
  12. The practice of clinical pathology: a quantitative description of laboratory director activities at a large academic medical center.

    American Journal of Clinical Pathology 142(2):144 (2014) PMID 25015853

    The scope of activities performed by clinical laboratory directors is sometimes unfamiliar to other physicians or hospital administrators. Consequently, hospital leadership may undervalue the role and assume that many director level activities could be delegated to a professional manager. In thi...
  13. Induction of Gag-specific CD4 T cell responses during acute HIV infection is associated with improved viral control.

    Journal of Virology 88(13):7357 (2014) PMID 24741089 PMCID PMC4054446

    Effector CD4 T cell responses have been shown to be critically involved in the containment and clearance of viral pathogens. However, their involvement in the pathogenesis of HIV infection is less clear, given their additional role as preferred viral targets. We previously demonstrated that the ...
  14. Concordance of PCR and culture from nasal swabs for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a setting of concurrent antistaphylococcal antibiotics.

    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 52(4):1235 (2014) PMID 24452168 PMCID PMC3993487

    The effect of concurrent administration of antibiotics on the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains unresolved. Here, we assessed the concordance of paired nasal swabs processed using commercial PCR and culture and found high concordance in both the absence and ...
  15. HIV-1 persistence in CD4+ T cells with stem cell-like properties.

    Nature Medicine 20(2):139 (2014) PMID 24412925 PMCID PMC3959167

    Cellular HIV-1 reservoirs that persist despite antiretroviral treatment are incompletely defined. We show that during suppressive antiretroviral therapy, CD4(+) T memory stem cells (TSCM cells) harbor high per-cell levels of HIV-1 DNA and make increasing contributions to the total viral CD4(+) T...
  16. Susceptibility to CD8 T-cell-mediated killing influences the reservoir of latently HIV-1-infected CD4 T cells.

    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syn... 65(1):1 (2014) PMID 23846565 PMCID PMC3874432

    HIV-1 establishes a lifelong infection in the human body, but host factors that influence viral persistence remain poorly understood. Cell-intrinsic characteristics of CD4 T cells, the main target cells for HIV-1, may affect the composition of the latent viral reservoir by altering the susceptib...
  17. Acute HIV-1 infection: a call to action.

    Annals of Internal Medicine 159(6):425 (2013) PMID 24042369

  18. Borrelia miyamotoi: a lesson in disease discovery.

    Annals of Internal Medicine 159(1):61 (2013) PMID 23817704

  19. Discontinuation of contact precautions for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus: a randomized controlled trial comparing passive and active screening with culture and polymerase chain reaction.

    Clinical Infectious Diseases 57(2):176 (2013) PMID 23572482 PMCID PMC3689342

    There have been no randomized controlled trials comparing active and passive screening for documenting clearance of colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We compared the efficacy of active and passive screening using both culture and commercial polymerase chain re...
  20. A monoclonal antibody against lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 decreases HIV-1 replication by inducing the secretion of an antiviral soluble factor.

    Virology Journal 10:120 (2013) PMID 23594747 PMCID PMC3648404

    Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1) likely plays a role in the pathogenesis of against HIV-1 and is known to facilitate cell-to-cell transmission of the virus. A monoclonal antibody specific for LFA-1 (Cytolin®) was evaluated as a potential therapeutic in pilot studies performed in ...