1. Validity of the estimates of oral cholera vaccine effectiveness derived from the test-negative design.

    Vaccine 34(4):479 (2016) PMID 26707378

    The test-negative design (TND) has emerged as a simple method for evaluating vaccine effectiveness (VE). Its utility for evaluating oral cholera vaccine (OCV) effectiveness is unknown. We examined this method's validity in assessing OCV effectiveness by comparing the results of TND analyses with...
  2. The scenario approach for countries considering the addition of oral cholera vaccination in cholera preparedness and control plans.

    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 16(1):125 (2016) PMID 26494426

    Oral cholera vaccination could be deployed in a diverse range of situations from cholera-endemic areas and locations of humanitarian crises, but no clear consensus exists. The supply of licensed, WHO-prequalified cholera vaccines is not sufficient to meet endemic and epidemic needs worldwide and...
  3. Treatment of Ebola.

    New England Journal of Medicine 372(17):1673 (2015) PMID 25901440

  4. Treatment of Ebola

    New England Journal of Medicine 372(17):1673 (2015) PMID 25901439

    To the Editor: We were struck by the similarity of transient vascular leak in Ebola virus disease (EVD), as reported by Lyon et al. (Dec. 18 issue),1 with that which occurs in dengue. When severe dengue was first described, uncorrected hypovolemia often led to shock, hemorrhage, and de...
  5. Post-licensure deployment of oral cholera vaccines: a systematic review.

    Bulletin of The World Health Organization 92(12):881 (2014) PMID 25552772 PMCID PMC4264394

    To describe and analyse the characteristics of oral cholera vaccination campaigns; including location, target population, logistics, vaccine coverage and delivery costs. We searched PubMed, the World Health Organization (WHO) website and the Cochrane database with no date or language restriction...
  6. 6 - Issues and Challenges of Public-Health Research in Developing Countries

  7. Methods to assess the impact of mass oral cholera vaccination campaigns under real field conditions.

    PLoS ONE 9(2):e88139 (2014) PMID 24516595 PMCID PMC3917865

    There is increasing interest to use oral cholera vaccination as an additional strategy to water and sanitation interventions against endemic and epidemic cholera. There are two internationally-available and WHO-prequalified oral cholera vaccines: an inactivated vaccine containing killed whole-ce...
  8. Contributors
    Steven Abrams, Adekunle M. Adesina, Dwomoa Adu, Sitara S.R. Ajjampur, Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana, Angelakis Emmanouil, Jeffrey K. Aronson, Inoshi Atukorala, Guy Baily, Till Bärnighausen, Buddha Basnyat, Andrew Bastawrous, Imelda Bates, Daniel G. Bausch, Nicholas A.V. Beare, Raman Bedi, Nick J. Beeching, Nicholas J. Bennett, Anita Berlin, Ahmed I. Bhigjee, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, David E. Bloom, Lucille Hellen Blumberg, Marleen Boelaert, Francis J. Bowden, Bernard J. Brabin, Freddie Bray, Rodney A. Bray, Simon J. Brooker, Matthijs C. Brouwer, Reto Brun, Enrico Brunetti, Susan Bull, Donald A.P. Bundy, Christian Burri, Amaya Bustinduy, Thashi Chang, François Chappuis, Wirongrong Chierakul, Peter L. Chiodini, John D. Clemens, Gordon C. Cook, Mark F. Cotton, John B.S. Coulter, Nigel A. Cunliffe, Bart J. Currie, Marian J. Currie, David A.B. Dance, Nicholas P.J. Day, Kevin DeCock, Jacqueline Deen, Sarah R Doffman, Arjen Dondorp, H. Rogier van Doorn, Martin W. Dünser, Edward M. Eitzen, Delia A. Enria, Jeremy Farrar, Christina Faust, Nicholas A. Feasey, Abebaw Fekadu, Günther Fink, Peter U. Fischer, Carlos Franco-Paredes, Neil French, Hector H. Garcia, Roger I. Glass, Melita A. Gordon, Stephen B. Gordon, Bruno Gottstein, Stephen M. Graham, Andy Haines, Roy A. Hall, Charlotte Hanlon, The late C. Anthony Hart, Melissa R. Haswell, Sophie Hawkesworth, Roderick J. Hay, Jeannine M. Heckmann, Markus M. Heimesaat, Anselm J.M. Hennis, Tran Tinh Hien, Achim Hoerauf, Peter J. Hotez, Salal Humair, Cheryl A. Johansen, Roch Christian Johnson, Malcolm K. Jones, Thomas Junghanss, Sasithorn Kaewkes, Gagandeep Kang, Paul Kelly, Charles H. King, Sandeep P. Kishore, Patricia Kissinger, David Lalloo, Trudie Lang, Oliver Liesenfeld, Diana N.J. Lockwood, David C.W. Mabey, The late M. Monir Madkour, Barbara J. Marston, Refiloe Masekela, Philippe Mayaud, James S. McCarthy, Rose McGready, Paul S. McNamara, Laura Merson, Robert F. Miller, Glen D. Liddell, Kevin Mortimer, Ayesha A. Motala, Kosta Y. Mumcuoglu, Flor M. Munoz, Melba Munoz Roldan, Theonest Mutabingwa, Osamu Nakagomi, Yukifumi Nawa, Robert Newton, Lisa F.P. Ng, François H. Nosten, Jennifer O’Hea, Shirley, Daniel H. Paris, Michael Parker, Philip J. Peters, Fraser J. Pirie, Gerd Pluschke, Andrew M. Prentice, Thomas C. Quinn, Minoarisoa Esther Rajerison, Didier Raoult, Maherisoa Ratsitorahina, K. Srinath Reddy, Steven J. Reynolds, John Richens, Marcus J. Rijken, Sara Ritchie, Janet Robinson, Angela M.C. Rose, Juan C. Salazar, T. Alafia Samuels, Marcus J. Schultz, Crispian Scully, Paul Shears, Paul E. Simonsen, Paiboon Sithithaworn, David W. Smith, Tom Solomon, Vaughan R. Southgate, Banchob Sripa, M. Leila Srour, Marija Stojkovic, Shyam Sundar, Jecko Thachil, Raj Thuraisingham, C. Louise Thwaites, Guy Thwaites, M. Estée Török, Nigel Unwin, Diederik van de Beek, Francisco Vega-Lopez, Govinda S. Visvesvara, Lorenz von Seidlein, Katie Wakeham, Stephen L. Walker, Honorine Ward, Mary J. Warrell, David A. Warrell, Gary J. Weil, Graham B. White, Nicholas J. White, Stephen G. Withington, Vanessa Wong, Robin Wood, Sarah Wyllie, Lam Minh Yen, Paul R. Young, Sophie Yacoub, and Ken Zafren

  9. The value of and challenges for cholera vaccines in Africa.

    Journal of Infectious Diseases 208 Suppl 1:S8 (2013) PMID 24101650

    The 21st century saw a shift in the cholera burden from Asia to Africa. The risk factors for cholera outbreaks in Africa are incompletely understood, and the traditional emphasis on providing safe drinking water and improving sanitation and hygiene has proven remarkably insufficient to contain o...
  10. Enteric fever burden in North Jakarta, Indonesia: a prospective, community-based study.

    The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 7(11):781 (2013) PMID 24240034

    We undertook a prospective community-based study in North Jakarta, Indonesia, to determine the incidence, clinical characteristics, seasonality, etiologic agent, and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of enteric fever. Following a census, treatment centre-based surveillance for febrile illness...
  11. Utilization and accessibility of healthcare on Pemba Island, Tanzania: implications for health outcomes and disease surveillance for typhoid fever.

    The Journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 88(1):144 (2013) PMID 23208887 PMCID PMC3541726

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) was estimated to cause over 200,000 deaths and more than 21 million illnesses worldwide, including over 400,000 illnesses in Africa. The current study was conducted in four villages on Pemba Island, Zanzibar, in 2010. We present data on policy makers...
  12. Vivax malaria and bacteraemia: a prospective study in Kolkata, India.

    Malaria Journal 12:176 (2013) PMID 23721247 PMCID PMC3691654

    Falciparum malaria increases the risk for bacteraemia, whereas the relationship between vivax malaria and bacteraemia is not clear. Data from a prospective fever surveillance study in Kolkata, India were reanalysed for the potential association between Plasmodium vivax malaria and bacteraemia. P...
  13. Bloodstream infections in south and southeast Asia - authors' reply.

    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 13(1):15 (2013) PMID 23257226

  14. Identifying national health research priorities in Timor-Leste through a scoping review of existing health data.

    Health Research Policy and Systems 11(1):8 (2013) PMID 23452321 PMCID PMC3599283

    Health research is crucial to understand a country's needs and to improve health outcomes. We conducted a scoping review and analysis of existing health data in Timor-Leste to identify the health research priorities of the country. Published and unpublished health research in Timor-Leste from 20...
  15. Effectiveness of an oral cholera vaccine in Zanzibar: findings from a mass vaccination campaign and observational cohort study.

    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 12(11):837 (2012) PMID 22954655

    Zanzibar, in east Africa, has been severely and repeatedly affected by cholera since 1978. We assessed the effectiveness of oral cholera vaccination in high-risk populations in the archipelago to estimate the indirect (herd) protection conferred by the vaccine and direct vaccine effectiveness. W...
  16. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae: prevalence and risk factors in HIV-positive children in Tanzania.

    International Journal of Infectious Diseases 16(10):e753 (2012) PMID 22884165

    Pneumococcal colonization of the nasopharynx is especially common in young children and is a pre-requisite for pneumococcal disease. Those with immunosuppression, such as HIV, are at higher risk of colonization and disease, especially at older ages. Currently, vaccination schedules are only offe...
  17. Community-acquired bacterial bloodstream infections in developing countries in south and southeast Asia: a systematic review.

    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 12(6):480 (2012) PMID 22632186

    Information about community-acquired bacteraemia in developing countries in south and southeast Asia is scarce. We aimed to establish the case fraction of bacteraemia in febrile patients admitted to hospital. We searched four databases and identified studies of south and southeast Asia published...
  18. Evaluation of a rapid dipstick (Crystal VC) for the diagnosis of cholera in Zanzibar and a comparison with previous studies.

    PLoS ONE 7(5):e36930 (2012) PMID 22662131 PMCID PMC3360732

    The gold standard for the diagnosis of cholera is stool culture, but this requires laboratory facilities and takes at least 24 hours. A rapid diagnostic test (RDT) that can be used by minimally trained staff at treatment centers could potentially improve the reporting and management of cholera o...
  19. Decreasing incidence of severe malaria and community-acquired bacteraemia among hospitalized children in Muheza, north-eastern Tanzania, 2006-2010.

    Malaria Journal 10:320 (2011) PMID 22029477 PMCID PMC3219788

    The annual incidence and temporal trend of severe malaria and community-acquired bacteraemia during a four-year period in Muheza, Tanzania was assessed. Data on severely ill febrile children aged 2 months to 14 years from three prospective studies conducted at Muheza District Hospital from 2006 ...
  20. Artesunate versus quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria in African children (AQUAMAT): an open-label, randomised trial.

    The Lancet 376(9753):1647 (2010) PMID 21062666 PMCID PMC3033534

    Severe malaria is a major cause of childhood death and often the main reason for paediatric hospital admission in sub-Saharan Africa. Quinine is still the established treatment of choice, although evidence from Asia suggests that artesunate is associated with a lower mortality. We compared paren...