Validity of the estimates of oral cholera vaccine effectiveness derived from the test-negative design.
Vaccine 34(4):479 (2016)
The test-negative design (TND) has emerged as a simple method for evaluating vaccine effectiveness (VE). Its utility for evaluating oral cholera vaccine (OCV) effectiveness is unknown. We examined this method's validity in assessing OCV effectiveness by comparing the results of TND analyses with...
The scenario approach for countries considering the addition of oral cholera vaccination in cholera preparedness and control plans.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 16(1):125 (2016)
Oral cholera vaccination could be deployed in a diverse range of situations from cholera-endemic areas and locations of humanitarian crises, but no clear consensus exists. The supply of licensed, WHO-prequalified cholera vaccines is not sufficient to meet endemic and epidemic needs worldwide and...
Treatment of Ebola.
New England Journal of Medicine 372(17):1673 (2015)
Treatment of Ebola
New England Journal of Medicine 372(17):1673 (2015)
To the Editor: We were struck by the similarity of transient vascular leak in Ebola virus disease (EVD), as reported by Lyon et al. (Dec. 18 issue),1 with that which occurs in dengue. When severe dengue was first described, uncorrected hypovolemia often led to shock, hemorrhage, and de...
Post-licensure deployment of oral cholera vaccines: a systematic review.
Bulletin of The World Health Organization 92(12):881 (2014)
To describe and analyse the characteristics of oral cholera vaccination campaigns; including location, target population, logistics, vaccine coverage and delivery costs.
We searched PubMed, the World Health Organization (WHO) website and the Cochrane database with no date or language restriction...
6 - Issues and Challenges of Public-Health Research in Developing Countries
Methods to assess the impact of mass oral cholera vaccination campaigns under real field conditions.
PLoS ONE 9(2):e88139 (2014)
There is increasing interest to use oral cholera vaccination as an additional strategy to water and sanitation interventions against endemic and epidemic cholera. There are two internationally-available and WHO-prequalified oral cholera vaccines: an inactivated vaccine containing killed whole-ce...
The value of and challenges for cholera vaccines in Africa.
Journal of Infectious Diseases 208 Suppl 1:S8 (2013)
The 21st century saw a shift in the cholera burden from Asia to Africa. The risk factors for cholera outbreaks in Africa are incompletely understood, and the traditional emphasis on providing safe drinking water and improving sanitation and hygiene has proven remarkably insufficient to contain o...
Enteric fever burden in North Jakarta, Indonesia: a prospective, community-based study.
The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 7(11):781 (2013)
We undertook a prospective community-based study in North Jakarta, Indonesia, to determine the incidence, clinical characteristics, seasonality, etiologic agent, and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of enteric fever.
Following a census, treatment centre-based surveillance for febrile illness...
Utilization and accessibility of healthcare on Pemba Island, Tanzania: implications for health outcomes and disease surveillance for typhoid fever.
The Journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 88(1):144 (2013)
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) was estimated to cause over 200,000 deaths and more than 21 million illnesses worldwide, including over 400,000 illnesses in Africa. The current study was conducted in four villages on Pemba Island, Zanzibar, in 2010. We present data on policy makers...
Vivax malaria and bacteraemia: a prospective study in Kolkata, India.
Malaria Journal 12:176 (2013)
Falciparum malaria increases the risk for bacteraemia, whereas the relationship between vivax malaria and bacteraemia is not clear. Data from a prospective fever surveillance study in Kolkata, India were reanalysed for the potential association between Plasmodium vivax malaria and bacteraemia.
Bloodstream infections in south and southeast Asia - authors' reply.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 13(1):15 (2013)
Identifying national health research priorities in Timor-Leste through a scoping review of existing health data.
Health Research Policy and Systems 11(1):8 (2013)
Health research is crucial to understand a country's needs and to improve health outcomes. We conducted a scoping review and analysis of existing health data in Timor-Leste to identify the health research priorities of the country. Published and unpublished health research in Timor-Leste from 20...
Effectiveness of an oral cholera vaccine in Zanzibar: findings from a mass vaccination campaign and observational cohort study.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 12(11):837 (2012)
Zanzibar, in east Africa, has been severely and repeatedly affected by cholera since 1978. We assessed the effectiveness of oral cholera vaccination in high-risk populations in the archipelago to estimate the indirect (herd) protection conferred by the vaccine and direct vaccine effectiveness.
Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae: prevalence and risk factors in HIV-positive children in Tanzania.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases 16(10):e753 (2012)
Pneumococcal colonization of the nasopharynx is especially common in young children and is a pre-requisite for pneumococcal disease. Those with immunosuppression, such as HIV, are at higher risk of colonization and disease, especially at older ages. Currently, vaccination schedules are only offe...
Community-acquired bacterial bloodstream infections in developing countries in south and southeast Asia: a systematic review.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 12(6):480 (2012)
Information about community-acquired bacteraemia in developing countries in south and southeast Asia is scarce. We aimed to establish the case fraction of bacteraemia in febrile patients admitted to hospital. We searched four databases and identified studies of south and southeast Asia published...
Evaluation of a rapid dipstick (Crystal VC) for the diagnosis of cholera in Zanzibar and a comparison with previous studies.
PLoS ONE 7(5):e36930 (2012)
The gold standard for the diagnosis of cholera is stool culture, but this requires laboratory facilities and takes at least 24 hours. A rapid diagnostic test (RDT) that can be used by minimally trained staff at treatment centers could potentially improve the reporting and management of cholera o...
Decreasing incidence of severe malaria and community-acquired bacteraemia among hospitalized children in Muheza, north-eastern Tanzania, 2006-2010.
Malaria Journal 10:320 (2011)
The annual incidence and temporal trend of severe malaria and community-acquired bacteraemia during a four-year period in Muheza, Tanzania was assessed.
Data on severely ill febrile children aged 2 months to 14 years from three prospective studies conducted at Muheza District Hospital from 2006 ...
Artesunate versus quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria in African children (AQUAMAT): an open-label, randomised trial.
The Lancet 376(9753):1647 (2010)
Severe malaria is a major cause of childhood death and often the main reason for paediatric hospital admission in sub-Saharan Africa. Quinine is still the established treatment of choice, although evidence from Asia suggests that artesunate is associated with a lower mortality. We compared paren...