Convergent findings for abnormalities of the NF-κB signaling pathway in schizophrenia.
Neurons exhibit a constitutive level of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling and this pathway plays a significant role in neurite outgrowth, activity-dependent plasticity, and cognitive function. Transcription factor analysis was performed in a microarray data set profiled in four different brain...
A system-level transcriptomic analysis of schizophrenia using postmortem brain tissue samples.
Archives of General Psychiatry 69(12):1205 (2012)
CONTEXT Schizophrenia is a common, highly heritable, neurodevelopmental mental illness, characterized by genetic heterogeneity. OBJECTIVE To identify abnormalities in the transcriptome organization among older persons with schizophrenia and controls. DESIGN Weighted gene coexpression network ana...
Molecular and genetic evidence for abnormalities in the nodes of Ranvier in schizophrenia.
Archives of General Psychiatry 69(1):7 (2012)
Genetic, neuroimaging, and molecular neurobiological evidence support the hypothesis that the disconnectivity syndrome in schizophrenia (SZ) could arise from failures of saltatory conduction and abnormalities at the nodes of Ranvier (NOR) interface where myelin and axons interact.
To identify ab...
The brain's emotional foundations of human personality and the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales.
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 35(9):1946 (2011)
Six of the primary-process subcortical brain emotion systems - SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, CARE, GRIEF and PLAY - are presented as foundational for human personality development, and hence as a potentially novel template for personality assessment as in the Affective Neurosciences Personality Scales (A...
The effects of hypertension and body mass index on diffusion tensor imaging in schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia Research 130(1-3):94 (2011)
Recently, the negative effects of hypertension and elevated body mass index on cognitive functioning in schizophrenia have been reported (Friedman et al., 2010). Data suggests that cognitive changes in hypertensive patients from the general population may be mediated, in part, by white matter da...
Expression of mutant human DISC1 in mice supports abnormalities in differentiation of oligodendrocytes.
Schizophrenia Research 130(1-3):238 (2011)
Abnormalities in oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation and OLG gene expression deficit have been described in schizophrenia (SZ). Recent studies revealed a critical requirement for Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) in neural development. Transgenic mice with forebrain restricted expression of...
Pimozide augmentation of clozapine inpatients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder unresponsive to clozapine monotherapy.
Despite its superior efficacy, clozapine is helpful in only a subset of patients with schizophrenia unresponsive to other antipsychotics. This lack of complete success has prompted the frequent use of various clozapine combination strategies despite a paucity of evidence from randomized controll...
Linking oligodendrocyte and myelin dysfunction to neurocircuitry abnormalities in schizophrenia.
Progress in Neurobiology 93(1):13 (2011)
Multiple lines of evidence in schizophrenia, from brain imaging, studies in postmortem brains, and genetic association studies, have implicated oligodendrocyte and myelin dysfunction in this disease. Recent studies suggest that oligodendrocyte and myelin dysfunction leads to changes in synaptic ...
Microarray database mining and cell differentiation defects in schizophrenia.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 696:67 (2011)
The causes of schizophrenia remain unknown, but a key role of oligodendrocytes and of the myelination process carried out by them has gained increasing support. The adult human brain parenchyma contains a relatively large population of progenitor cells that can generate oligodendrocytes. Defects...
The effects of hypertension and body mass index on cognition in schizophrenia.
American Journal of Psychiatry 167(10):1232 (2010)
In recent years there has been a greater appreciation of the elevated prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the schizophrenia population and the liability some treatments have for their development. These vascular risk factors are in turn important risk factors in the development of demen...
Strong synaptic transmission impact by copy number variations in schizophrenia.
PNAS 107(23):10584 (2010)
Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with onset in late adolescence and unclear etiology characterized by both positive and negative symptoms, as well as cognitive deficits. To identify copy number variations (CNVs) that increase the risk of schizophrenia, we performed a whole-genome CNV anal...
Abnormal indices of cell cycle activity in schizophrenia and their potential association with oligodendrocytes.
The goal of this study was to determine what signaling pathways may elicit myelin-specific gene expression deficits in schizophrenia (SZ). Microarray analyses indicated that genes associated with canonical cell cycle pathways were significantly affected in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), the...
Temporal characteristics of tract-specific anisotropy abnormalities in schizophrenia.
Neuroreport 19(14):1369 (2008)
White matter abnormalities have been detected using diffusion tensor imaging in a variety of locations in the brains of patients with schizophrenia. Studies that included first-episode patients report less severe or no abnormalities but more pronounced deficits in chronic patients. Here, we inve...
Diffusion tensor imaging findings in first-episode and chronic schizophrenia patients.
American Journal of Psychiatry 165(8):1024 (2008)
Comparisons of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data between first-episode and chronic schizophrenia patients assessed in different studies have led to the suggestion that the decreased fractional anisotropy observed in chronic schizophrenia patients is less pronounced in first-episode patients. H...
American Journal of Psychiatry 165(4):457 (2008)
Relationships between white matter metabolite abnormalities, cognitive and social functioning in elderly schizophrenic subjects.
Schizophrenia Research 100(1-3):356 (2008)
Schizophrenia and sex associated differences in the expression of neuronal and oligodendrocyte-specific genes in individual thalamic nuclei.
Schizophrenia Research 98(1-3):118 (2008)
Considerable evidence based on the study of postmortem brain tissue suggests deficits in both neuronal and myelin systems in schizophrenia (SZ). To date, the majority of the biochemical and molecular biological studies have focused on the cerebral cortex. Most information traveling to or from th...
Variations in oligodendrocyte-related gene expression across multiple cortical regions: implications for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 10(4):565 (2007)
The disconnectivity syndrome hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that communication between multiple brain circuits and regions may be disrupted. Microarray studies analysed gene expression in 15 different brain regions derived from 13 persons with schizophrenia and controls. The superior tempo...
Introduction to the special section: Myelin and oligodendrocyte abnormalities in schizophrenia.
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 10(4):499 (2007)
A central tenet of modern views of the neurobiology of schizophrenia is that the symptoms of schizophrenia arise from a failure of adequate communication between different brain regions and disruption of the circuitry that underlies behaviour and perception. Historically this disconnectivity syn...
82-kDa choline acetyltransferase is in nuclei of cholinergic neurons in human CNS and altered in aging and Alzheimer disease.
Neurobiology of Aging 28(7):1028 (2007)
Cholinergic neurons express choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) which synthesizes acetylcholine. We show here for the first time that primate-specific 82-kDa ChAT is expressed in nuclei of cholinergic neurons in human brain and spinal cord; isoform-specific antibodies were used to compare localizat...