MRF4 negatively regulates adult skeletal muscle growth by repressing MEF2 activity.
Nature Communications 7:12397 (2016)
The myogenic regulatory factor MRF4 is highly expressed in adult skeletal muscle but its function is unknown. Here we show that Mrf4 knockdown in adult muscle induces hypertrophy and prevents denervation-induced atrophy. This effect is accompanied by increased protein synthesis and widespread ac...
Chris Marshall (1949–2015).
Cell 162(6):1177 (2015)
Comparative epigenomics in distantly related teleost species identifies conserved cis-regulatory nodes active during the vertebrate phylotypic period.
Genome Research 24(7):1075 (2014)
The complex relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny has been the subject of attention and controversy since von Baer's formulations in the 19th century. The classic concept that embryogenesis progresses from clade general features to species-specific characters has often been revisited. It h...
Gene regulatory networks and transcriptional mechanisms that control myogenesis.
Developmental Cell 28(3):225 (2014)
We discuss the upstream regulators of myogenesis that lead to the activation of myogenic determination genes and subsequent differentiation, focusing on the mouse model. Key upstream genes, such as Pax3 and Pax7, Six1 and Six4, or Pitx2, participate in gene regulatory networks at different sites...
Dial M(RF) for myogenesis.
FEBS Journal 280(17):3980 (2013)
The transcriptional regulatory network that controls the determination and differentiation of skeletal muscle cells in the embryo has at its core the four myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) Myf5, MyoD, Mrf4 and MyoG. These basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors act by binding, as obligate ...
Transcriptional dominance of Pax7 in adult myogenesis is due to high-affinity recognition of homeodomain motifs.
Developmental Cell 22(6):1208 (2012)
Pax3 and Pax7 regulate stem cell function in skeletal myogenesis. However, molecular insight into their distinct roles has remained elusive. Using gene expression data combined with genome-wide binding-site analysis, we show that both Pax3 and Pax7 bind identical DNA motifs and jointly activate ...
Musculin and TCF21 coordinate the maintenance of myogenic regulatory factor expression levels during mouse craniofacial development.
Development 139(5):958 (2012)
The specification of the skeletal muscle lineage during craniofacial development is dependent on the activity of MYF5 and MYOD, two members of the myogenic regulatory factor family. In the absence of MYF5 or MYOD there is not an overt muscle phenotype, whereas in the double Myf5;MyoD knockout br...
Expression pattern of the FoxO1 gene during mouse embryonic development.
Gene Expression Patterns 11(5-6):299 (2011)
In order to fully describe the expression pattern of the transcription factor FoxO1, we have screened the ES cell genetrap repository databases and obtained a clone that contains the ß-geo reporter gene inserted within intron 1 of FoxO1. We then used the ES cell clone to generate a new mouse str...
Regulation of gene expression in vertebrate skeletal muscle.
Experimental Cell Research 316(18):3014 (2010)
During embryonic development the integration of numerous synergistic signalling pathways turns a single cell into a multicellular organism with specialized cell types and highly structured, organized tissues. To achieve this, cells must grow, proliferate, differentiate and die according to their...
Interplay between DNA methylation and transcription factor availability: implications for developmental activation of the mouse Myogenin gene.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 30(15):3805 (2010)
During development, gene activation is stringently regulated to restrict expression only to the correct cell type and correct developmental stage. Here, we present mechanistic evidence that suggests DNA methylation contributes to this regulation by suppressing premature gene activation. Using th...
Global transcriptional regulation of the locus encoding the skeletal muscle determination genes Mrf4 and Myf5.
Genes & Development 22(2):265 (2008)
The linked Mrf4 and Myf5 genes encode two transcription factors essential for the determination and differentiation of skeletal muscle in the embryo. The locus is controlled by a multitude of interdigitated enhancers that activate gene expression at different times and in precisely defined proge...
Expression of the Lingo/LERN gene family during mouse embryogenesis.
Gene Expression Patterns 8(2):79 (2008)
We have analysed the expression during mouse development of the four member Lingo/LERN gene family which encodes type 1 transmembrane proteins containing 12 extracellular leucine rich repeats, an immunoglobulin C2 domain and a short intracellular tail. Each family member has a distinct pattern o...
Mrf4 (myf6) is dynamically expressed in differentiated zebrafish skeletal muscle.
Gene Expression Patterns 7(7):738 (2007)
Mrf4 (Myf6) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) myogenic regulatory transcription factor (MRF) family, which also contains Myod, Myf5 and myogenin. Mrf4 is implicated in commitment of amniote cells to skeletal myogenesis and is also abundantly expressed in many adult muscle fibres. ...
Developmentally regulated expression of the LRRTM gene family during mid-gestation mouse embryogenesis.
Gene Expression Patterns 7(1-2):23 (2007)
We have analysed the expression during mid-gestation mouse development of the four member LRRTM gene family which encodes type 1 transmembrane proteins containing 10 extracellular leucine rich repeats and a short intracellular tail. Each family member has a developmentally regulated pattern of e...
Regulated expression of FLRT genes implies a functional role in the regulation of FGF signalling during mouse development.
Developmental Biology 297(1):14 (2006)
Within the mammalian genome, there are many multimember gene families that encode membrane proteins with extracellular leucine rich repeats which are thought to act as cell adhesion or signalling molecules. We previously showed that the members of the NLRR gene family are expressed in a developm...
The NLRR gene family and mouse development: Modified differential display PCR identifies NLRR-1 as a gene expressed in early somitic myoblasts.
Developmental Biology 281(2):145 (2005)
During vertebrate embryogenesis, the somites form by segmentation of the trunk mesoderm, lateral to the neural tube, in an anterior to posterior direction. Analysis of differential gene expression during somitogenesis has been problematic due to the limited amount of tissue available from early ...
Myf5 expression in satellite cells and spindles in adult muscle is controlled by separate genetic elements.
Developmental Biology 273(2):454 (2004)
The myogenic regulatory factor Myf5 is integral to the initiation and control of skeletal muscle formation. In adult muscle, Myf5 is expressed in satellite cells, stem cells of mature muscle, but not in the myonuclei that sustain the myofibre. Using the Myf5(nlacZ/+) mouse, we now show that Myf5...
The initial somitic phase of Myf5 expression requires neither Shh signaling nor Gli regulation.
Genes & Development 17(23):2870 (2003)
Myf5, the skeletal muscle determination gene, is first expressed in the dorso-medial aspect of the somite under the control of an element we have called the early epaxial enhancer. It has subsequently been reported that this enhancer is a direct target of Shh signaling mediated by Gli transcript...
Analysis of a key regulatory region upstream of the Myf5 gene reveals multiple phases of myogenesis, orchestrated at each site by a combination of elements dispersed throughout the locus.
Development 130(15):3415 (2003)
Myf5 is the first myogenic regulatory factor to be expressed in the mouse embryo and it determines the entry of cells into the skeletal muscle programme. A region situated between -58 kb and -48 kb from the gene directs Myf5 transcription at sites where muscles will form. We now show that this r...
Multiple levels of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation are required to define the domain of Hoxb4 expression.
Development 130(12):2717 (2003)
Hox genes are key determinants of anteroposterior patterning of animal embryos, and spatially restricted expression of these genes is crucial to this function. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of Hoxb4 in the paraxial mesoderm of the mouse embryo is transcriptionally regulated in se...