Asprosin, a Fasting-Induced Glucogenic Protein Hormone.
Cell 165(3):566 (2016)
Hepatic glucose release into the circulation is vital for brain function and survival during periods of fasting and is modulated by an array of hormones that precisely regulate plasma glucose levels. We have identified a fasting-induced protein hormone that modulates hepatic glucose release. It ...
Enhanced atheroprotection and lesion remodelling by targeting the foam cell and increasing plasma cholesterol acceptors.
Cardiovascular Research 109(2):294 (2016)
Atherosclerosis development can be ameliorated by promoting reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) from arteries. The process involves cholesterol efflux from foam cells to extracellular acceptors such as apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that mediate transport to the l...
ROCK1 reduces mitochondrial content and irisin production in muscle suppressing adipocyte browning and impairing insulin sensitivity.
Scientific reports 6:29669 (2016)
Irisin reportedly promotes the conversion of preadipocytes into "brown-like" adipocytes within subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) via a mechanism that stimulates UCP-1 expression. An increase in plasma irisin has been associated with improved obesity and insulin resistance in mice with type...
Development and rescue of human familial hypercholesterolaemia in a xenograft mouse model.
Nature Communications 6:7339 (2015)
Diseases of lipid metabolism are a major cause of human morbidity, but no animal model entirely recapitulates human lipoprotein metabolism. Here we develop a xenograft mouse model using hepatocytes from a patient with familial hypercholesterolaemia caused by loss-of-function mutations in the low...
Recruitment of Th1 effector cells in human tuberculosis: hierarchy of chemokine receptor(s) and their ligands.
Cytokine 63(1):43 (2013)
Selective recruitment of IFN-γ biased Th1 effector cells at the pathologic site(s) determines the local immunity of tuberculosis (TB). We observed the enrichment of CXCR3, CCR5 and CD11a(high) T cells in the peripheral blood, pleural fluid and bronchoalveolar lavage of TB pleural effusion (TB-PE...
TFEB controls cellular lipid metabolism through a starvation-induced autoregulatory loop.
Nature Cell Biology 15(6):647 (2013)
The lysosomal-autophagic pathway is activated by starvation and plays an important role in both cellular clearance and lipid catabolism. However, the transcriptional regulation of this pathway in response to metabolic cues is uncharacterized. Here we show that the transcription factor EB (TFEB),...
Prevalence of and risk factors for lead poisoning in young children in Bangladesh.
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 30(4):404 (2012)
Lead poisoning is a major public-health problem in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the extent of and risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) in children in Bangladesh during September 2007-July 2009. The study included 919 children aged less than 16 year...
Ablation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues.
Aging Cell 10(6):996 (2011)
Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we s...
A peptidomimetic targeting white fat causes weight loss and improved insulin resistance in obese monkeys.
Science Translational Medicine 3(108):108ra112 (2011)
Obesity, defined as body mass index greater than 30, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and a financial burden worldwide. Despite significant efforts in the past decade, very few drugs have been successfully developed for the treatment of obese patients. Biological differences between...
The triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic-acid methyl ester has potent anti-diabetic effects in diet-induced diabetic mice and Lepr(db/db) mice.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 285(52):40581 (2010)
The triterpenoid 2-Cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic-acid (CDDO) and its methyl ester (CDDO-Me) are undergoing clinical trials in cancer and leukemia therapy. Here we report that CDDO-Me ameliorates diabetes in high fat diet-fed type 2 diabetic mice and in Lepr(db/db) mice. CDDO-Me reduces ...
Second trimester pregnancy termination with 400 μg vaginal misoprostol: efficacy and safety.
BioScience Trends 4(6):351 (2010)
The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of misoprostol (400 μg) given intravaginally repeated at 6 hourly intervals for a maximum of 6 doses for second-trimester pregnancy terminations. The study was conducted on women who had to undergo pregnancy termination between 1...
The coactivator SRC-1 is an essential coordinator of hepatic glucose production.
Cell Metabolism 12(6):606 (2010)
Gluconeogenesis makes a major contribution to hepatic glucose production, a process critical for survival in mammals. In this study, we identify the p160 family member, SRC-1, as a key coordinator of the hepatic gluconeogenic program in vivo. SRC-1-null mice displayed hypoglycemia secondary to a...
Activation of nuclear receptor CAR ameliorates diabetes and fatty liver disease.
PNAS 106(44):18831 (2009)
Constitutive androstane receptor CAR (NR1I3) has been identified as a central mediator of coordinate responses to xenobiotic and endobiotic stress. Here we use leptin-deficient mice (ob/ob) and ob/ob, CAR(-/-) double mutant mice to identify a metabolic role of CAR in type 2 diabetes. Activation ...
Prevalence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis among patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a retrospective hospital-based study.
Indian Journal of Medical Research 130(4):392 (2009)
Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is a difficult-to-treat form of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). High rates of XDR-TB have been reported from India. We sought to ascertain the prevalence of XDR-TB among patients with MDR-TB treated at a tertiary care centre in New Delh...
FoxP3+ regulatory T cells suppress effector T-cell function at pathologic site in miliary tuberculosis.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Ca... 179(11):1061 (2009)
The inadequacy of effector T-cell response in containment of tubercle bacilli is believed to result in the development of disseminated forms of tuberculosis (TB), such as miliary tuberculosis (MTB). Regulatory T cells (Treg) plausibly play a critical role in the immunopathogenesis of disseminate...
Targeted inactivation of MLL3 histone H3-Lys-4 methyltransferase activity in the mouse reveals vital roles for MLL3 in adipogenesis.
PNAS 105(49):19229 (2008)
Activating signal cointegrator-2 (ASC-2), a transcriptional coactivator of multiple transcription factors that include the adipogenic factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and C/EBPalpha, is associated with histone H3-Lys-4-methyltransferase (H3K4MT) MLL3 or its pa...
Molecular characterization of the role of orphan receptor small heterodimer partner in development of fatty liver.
Hepatology 46(1):147 (2007)
The orphan receptor Small Heterodimer Partner (SHP, NROB2) regulates metabolic pathways, including hepatic bile acid, lipid, and glucose homeostasis. We reported that SHP-deletion in leptin-deficient OB(-/-) mice increases insulin sensitivity, and prevents the development of fatty liver. The pre...
Ablation of ghrelin improves the diabetic but not obese phenotype of ob/ob mice.
Cell Metabolism 3(5):379 (2006)
Ghrelin and leptin are suggested to regulate energy homeostasis as mutual antagonists on hypothalamic neurons that regulate feeding behavior. We employed reverse genetics to investigate the interplay between ghrelin and leptin. Leptin-deficient mice (ob/ob) are hyperphagic, obese, and hyperglyce...
Farnesoid X receptor is essential for normal glucose homeostasis.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 116(4):1102 (2006)
The bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4) is a central regulator of bile acid and lipid metabolism. We show here that FXR plays a key regulatory role in glucose homeostasis. FXR-null mice developed severe fatty liver and elevated circulating FFAs, which was associated with elevate...
Metabolic adaptations in the absence of perilipin: increased beta-oxidation and decreased hepatic glucose production associated with peripheral insulin resistance but normal glucose tolerance in perilipin-null mice.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 279(34):35150 (2004)
Targeted disruption of the lipid droplet protein, perilipin, in mice leads to constitutional lipolysis associated with marked reduction in white adipose tissue as a result of unbridled lipolysis. To investigate the metabolic adaptations in response to the constitutive lipolysis, we studied peril...