Differential predictors of ART adherence among HIV-monoinfected versus HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals.
AIDS Care 28(8):954 (2016)
Although adherence is an important key to the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART), many people living with HIV (PLWH) fail to maintain optimal levels of ART adherence over time. PLWH with the added burden of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection possess unique challenges that potentially impa...
Can Probiotics Reduce Inflammation and Enhance Gut Immune Health in People Living with HIV: Study Designs for the Probiotic Visbiome for Inflammation and Translocation (PROOV IT) Pilot Trials.
HIV Clinical Trials 17(4):147 (2016)
Despite substantial improvements in HIV outcomes with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), morbidity and mortality remain above population norms. The gut mucosal immune system is not completely restored by cART, and the resultant microbial translocation may contribute to chronic inflammati...
Low Prolactin and High 20-α-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Levels Contribute to Lower Progesterone Levels in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women Exposed to Protease Inhibitor-Based Combination Antiretroviral Therapy.
Journal of Infectious Diseases 213(10):1532 (2016)
It has been reported that pregnant women receiving protease inhibitor (PI)-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have lower levels of progesterone, which put them at risk of adverse birth outcomes, such as low birth weight. We sought to understand the mechanisms involved in this declin...
HIV-1 Alters Intestinal Expression of Drug Transporters and Metabolic Enzymes: Implications for Antiretroviral Drug Disposition.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 60(5):2771 (2016)
This study investigated the effects of HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the expression of intestinal drug efflux transporters, i.e., P-glycoprotein (Pgp), multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and metabolic enzymes, such ...
How Generalizable Are the Results From Trials of Direct Antiviral Agents to People Coinfected With HIV/HCV in the Real World?
Clinical Infectious Diseases 62(7):919 (2016)
Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been described as revolutionary. However, it remains uncertain how effective these drugs will be for individuals coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-HCV. Bridging this gap between efficacy and effectiveness requi...
Tobacco Smoking Is Not Associated With Accelerated Liver Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Hepatitis C Coinfection: A Longitudinal Cohort Analysis.
Open forum infectious diseases 3(2):ofw050 (2016)
Background. Tobacco smoking has been shown to be an independent risk factor for liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in some cross-sectional studies. No longitudinal study has confirmed this relationship, and the effect of tobacco exposure on liver fibrosis in human immunodeficie...
What's new for antiretroviral treatment in women with HIV.
Currently, women represent 52% of persons infected with HIV worldwide and 23% of those in the United States. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has resulted in remarkable reductions in HIV-associated morbidity and mortality, and has dramatically improved life expectancy. Treatment guideli...
Switch to Raltegravir From Protease Inhibitor or Nonnucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitor Does not Reduce Visceral Fat In Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women With Central Adiposity.
Open forum infectious diseases 2(2):ofv059 (2015)
Human immunodeficiency virus-infected women with central adiposity switched to raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy immediately or after 24 weeks. No statistically significant changes in computed tomography-quantified visceral adipose tissue (VAT) or subcutaneous fat were observed, although ...
Herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus is not associated with inflammatory or metabolic markers in antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 31(3):276 (2015)
Systemic inflammation and immune activation may persist in HIV-infected persons on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and contribute to adverse health outcomes. We compared markers of immune activation, inflammation, and abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in HIV-infected ad...
HIV protease inhibitor use during pregnancy is associated with decreased progesterone levels, suggesting a potential mechanism contributing to fetal growth restriction.
Journal of Infectious Diseases 211(1):10 (2015)
Protease inhibitor (PI)-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is administered during pregnancy to prevent perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, PI use has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age...
Dolutegravir - a review of the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety in the treatment of HIV.
Drug Design, Development and Therapy 9:3547 (2015)
Dolutegravir is the newest integrase strand transfer inhibitor to be approved for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Dolutegravir is equivalent or superior to existing treatment regimens in both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients including those with p...
Previous antibiotic exposure and antimicrobial resistance in invasive pneumococcal disease: results from prospective surveillance.
Clinical Infectious Diseases 59(7):944 (2014)
Estimating the risk of antibiotic resistance is important in selecting empiric antibiotics. We asked how the timing, number of courses, and duration of antibiotic therapy in the previous 3 months affected antibiotic resistance in isolates causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD).
In Vitro and In Situ evaluation of pH-dependence of atazanavir intestinal permeability and interactions with acid-reducing agents.
Pharmaceutical Research 31(9):2404 (2014)
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of intestinal lumen pH, food intake, and acid-reducing agents on the intestinal permeability of atazanavir, an HIV-1 protease inhibitor.
Atazanavir permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayers (P app) and in situ steady-state permeability a...
Raltegravir as antiretroviral therapy in HIV/AIDS.
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 15(3):395 (2014)
HIV, a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide has been transformed by antiretroviral (ARV) therapy into a manageable condition. Drug resistance, tolerability and drug interactions remain major concerns when choosing ARV therapy. Raltegravir , the first integrase inhibitor in the armame...
Antiretroviral therapy is not associated with reduced herpes simplex virus shedding in HIV coinfected adults: an observational cohort study.
BMJ Open 4(1):e004210 (2014)
Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2) may have adverse consequences on HIV type 1 infection. We quantified the frequency of HSV reactivations in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated adults with HIV, and compared it with that in HAART-naïve patients.
2 academic hospital sit...
Urinary eicosanoid metabolites in HIV-infected women with central obesity switching to raltegravir: an analysis from the women, integrase, and fat accumulation trial.
Mediators of Inflammation 2014:803095 (2014)
Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of HIV infection. Eicosanoids reflect inflammation, oxidant stress, and vascular health and vary by sex and metabolic parameters. Raltegravir (RAL) is an HIV-1 integrase inhibitor that may have limited metabolic effects. We assessed urinary F2-isoprostanes (F2-...
Self-Reported Preconception Care of HIV-Positive Women of Reproductive Potential: A Retrospective Study.
Journal of the International Association of Pr... 13(5):424 (2014)
We determined the proportion and correlates of self-reported pregnancy planning discussions (that is preconception counseling) that HIV-positive women reported to their family physicians (FPs), HIV specialists, and obstetrician/gynecologists (OB/Gyns).
In a cross-sectional substudy, HIV-positive...
The importance of motherhood in HIV-positive women of reproductive age in Ontario, Canada.
AIDS Care 26(6):777 (2014)
Motherhood is personally, culturally, and historically rooted. Recent publications have focused on medical issues related to pregnancy and HIV, with attention on fetal well-being. There is limited literature on the importance of motherhood for HIV-positive women. Our study's purpose was to inves...
Dolutegravir plus abacavir-lamivudine for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.
New England Journal of Medicine 369(19):1807 (2013)
Dolutegravir (S/GSK1349572), a once-daily, unboosted integrase inhibitor, was recently approved in the United States for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Dolutegravir, in combination with abacavir-lamivudine, ...
Herpes simplex virus type 2 coinfection does not accelerate CD4 count decline in untreated HIV infection.
Clinical Infectious Diseases 57(3):448 (2013)
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations are associated with increased HIV load, but whether HSV-2 coinfection accelerates HIV disease is unclear. We compared rates of CD4 count decline according to HSV-2 status in untreated HIV-infected adults.
HIV-infected patients with a past period ...