Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
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Biology of Hypoxia
There is an important and strong, but complex influence of the tumor microenvironment on tumor cells׳ phenotype, aggressiveness, and treatment sensitivity. One of the most frequent and best-studied aspects of the tumor microenvironment is hypoxia. Low oxygen tension often occurs in tumor c...
PET and SPECT imaging in veterinary medicine.
Veterinarians have gained increasing access to positron emission tomography (PET and PET/CT) imaging facilities, allowing them to use this powerful molecular imaging technique for clinical and research applications. SPECT is currently being used more in Europe than in the United States and has been...
Radiation dose concerns for the pregnant or lactating patient.
This article discusses issues regarding administration of radiopharmaceuticals to pregnant women or nursing mothers. Uncertainties in calculated dose estimates and possible biological effects on the unborn child are presented. Models and dose estimates for pregnant women at several stages of gestati...
Current and future trends in the anatomical and functional imaging of head and neck paragangliomas.
Head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) account for approximately 3% of all paragangliomas (PGLs). Most often, HNPGLs are benign, nonsecreting, and slowly progressing. The initial physical examination and biochemical diagnosis usually adds very little to the proper diagnosis of these tumors, and, ther...
Radionuclide methods and instrumentation for breast cancer detection and diagnosis.
We describe some of the dedicated imaging systems (positron emission mammography [PEM] and breast-specific gamma imaging [BSGI]) that have been developed both commercially and in research laboratories for radionuclide imaging of breast cancer. Clinical studies with dedicated PEM scanners show improv...
Neuroimaging over the course of Parkinson's disease: from early detection of the at-risk patient to improving pharmacotherapy of later-stage...
Brain imaging of striatal dopamine terminal degeneration serves an important role in the clinical management of Parkinson's disease (PD). Imaging biomarkers for interrogating dopaminergic systems are used for clarifying diagnosis when only subtle motor symptoms are present. However, motor dysfunctio...
Radioiodine: the classic theranostic agent.
I continues to be the radioiodine of choice for the diagnosis of benign thyroid disease, whereas (123)I and (131)I are employed in the staging and detection of functioning thyroid cancer. (124)I, a positron emitter, can produce excellent anatomically correlated images employing positron emission tom...
To ablate or not to ablate: issues and evidence involved in 131I ablation of residual thyroid tissue in patients with differentiated thyroid...
Ablation of residual thyroid tissue after total or near-total thyroidectomy is widely accepted by many practitioners and endorsed by relevant professional societies in the United States and the international community for patients with defined risk factors, including age greater than 45 years, large...
Nonosseous, nonurologic uptake on bone scintigraphy: atlas and analysis.
We discuss the etiologies of soft-tissue uptake, organized according to mechanisms of accretion: (1) metastatic calcification, (2) dystrophic calcification, (3) metabolic uptake, and (4) compartmental sequestration. Spurious or artifactual uptake represents a fifth category of apparent soft-tissue u...
Altered biodistribution and incidental findings on gallium and labeled leukocyte/bone marrow scans.
Gallium-67 citrate and labeled leukocyte imaging are established procedures for diagnosing inflammation and infection. Knowledge of the normal biodistribution of these tracers, variations, and unusual disease presentations improves the accuracy of their interpretation. During the first 24 hours afte...