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Sensitive perception of a person's direction of walking by 4-year-old children.
We present evidence that 4-year-old children are sensitive to small differences in a person's direction of walking (∼7°) far beyond what has been previously shown. This sensitivity only occurred for perception of an upright walker, consistent with the recruitment of high-level visual areas. Even at...
Spontaneous initiation of communication in infants at low and heightened risk for autism spectrum disorders.
Communication spontaneously initiated by infants at heightened risk (HR; n = 15) for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is compared with that in low-risk (LR; n = 15) infants at 13 and 18 months of age. Infants were observed longitudinally during naturalistic in-home interaction and semistructured play...
Just pretending can be really learning: children use pretend play as a source for acquiring generic knowledge.
We report 3 experiments in which we investigated how this learning occurs-how children draw generalizations from pretense, and whether they resist doing so for pretense that is unrealistic. In all experiments, preschoolers watched pretend scenarios about an animal and were then asked questions about...
Pubertal timing and Mexican-origin girls' internalizing and externalizing symptoms: the influence of harsh parenting.
We examined whether pubertal timing in 5th grade predicted girls' internalizing and externalizing outcomes in 10th grade. We also examined the mediating and moderating effects of harsh parenting on the relations between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the in...
Relations between housing characteristics and the well-being of low-income children and adolescents.
Extant research has highlighted the importance of multiple characteristics of housing but has not comprehensively assessed a broad range of housing characteristics and their relative contributions to children's well-being. Using a representative, longitudinal sample of low-income children and adoles...
"He hasn't got the real toolkit!" Young children's reasoning about real/not-real status.
During the preschool years, children develop an understanding of 2 types of real/not-real distinctions: ontological status and authenticity (Bunce & Harris, 2008). Two studies compared 3- to 5-year-old children's real/not-real judgments and justifications for 3 types of contrast involving a real ent...
Deficit, difference, or both? Autism and neurodiversity.
We examined the perceived opposition between the medical model and the neurodiversity movement by assessing conceptions of autism and neurodiversity among people with different relations to autism. Participants (N = 657) included autistic people, relatives and friends of autistic people, and people...
Does being an older parent attenuate the intergenerational transmission of parenting?
We hypothesized that deferring parenting would weaken links between rearing experiences in the family of origin and parenting in the family of procreation. To test this proposition we repeated analyses reported by Belsky, Jaffee, Sligo, Woodward, and Silva (2005) on 227 parents averaging 23 years of...
Relational benefits of relational aggression: adaptive and maladaptive associations with adolescent friendship quality.
Two longitudinal studies examined associations between relational aggression and friendship quality during adolescence. In Study 1, 62 adolescents in Grades 6 (25.8%), 7 (32.3%), and 8 (41.9%) completed assessments of friendship affiliations, relational and overt aggression, and friendship quality a...
Examining the dimensionality of effortful control in preschool children and its relation to academic and socioemotional indicators.
Effortful control (EC) is an important developmental construct, associated with socioemotional growth, academic performance, and psychopathology. EC is defined as the ability to execute goal-directed behavior to inhibit or delay a prepotent response in favor of a subdominant response. Extant researc...