Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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Language affects symbolic arithmetic in children: The case of number word inversion.
Specific language influences have been observed in basic numerical tasks such as magnitude comparison, transcoding, and the number line estimation task. However, so far language influences in more complex calculations have not been reported in children. In this translingual study, 7- to 9-year-old G...
Children's strategies in computational estimation
We investigated strategies used to estimate answers to addition problems. Two hundred and sixteen participants (72 adults, 72 sixth graders, and 72 fourth graders) had to provide estimates of three-by-three digit addition problems (e.g., 249+743). The choice/no-choice method was used to obtain unbias...
Orthographic learning during reading: examining the role of self-teaching
We obtained a substantial correlation (r=.52) between orthographic learning and the number of target homophones correctly decoded during story reading. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that neither RAN tasks nor general cognitive ability predicted variance in orthographic learning...
Remembering versus knowing the past: children's explicit and implicit memories for pictures.
Two studies are reported examining children's explicit and implicit memory for pictures, using measures of recognition memory and perceptual facilitation. In Experiment 1, 3-year-olds showed significant implicit memory, as assessed by perceptual facilitation in identifying blurred pictures after a 3...
On estimating processing variance: commentary and reanalysis of Kail's "Developmental functions for speeds of cognitive processes".
We have reanalyzed these results. The corrected values range from 0.9 to 92.1% for the individual tasks with an overall average between 40 and 60%. We suggest that the support for the original conclusions is considerably weaker than reported....
Eliminating selective stimulus control: a comparison of two procedures for teaching mentally retarded children to respond to compound stimul...
Selective stimulus control occurs when behavior fails to come under control of all characteristics of a compound stimulus after discrimination training. Two different assessment procedures, one used in prior research and the other incorporating incorrect stimuli (S - 's) which differ...
The puzzling difficulty of tool innovation: why can't children piece their knowledge together?
We highlighted different aspects of tool making to children aged 4 to 6 years (N=110). Older children successfully innovated the means to make a hook after seeing the pre-made target tool only if they had a chance to manipulate the materials during a warm-up. Older children who had not manipulated t...
Explaining numeracy development in weak performing kindergartners.
Gaining better insight into precursors of early numeracy in young children is important, especially in those with inadequate numeracy skills. Therefore, in the current study, visual and verbal working memory, non-symbolic and symbolic comparison skills, and specific math-related language were used t...
Numerical landmarks are useful--except when they're not.
Placing landmarks on number lines, such as marking each tenth on a 0-1 line with a hatch mark and the corresponding decimal, has been recommended as a useful tool for improving children's number sense. Four experiments indicated that some landmarks do have beneficial effects, others have harmful eff...
Type of object motion facilitates word mapping by preverbal infants.
This study assessed whether specific types of object motion, which predominate in maternal naming to preverbal infants, facilitate word mapping by infants. A total of 60 full-term 8-month-old infants were habituated to two spoken words, /bæf/ and /wem/, synchronous with the handheld motions of a toy...