Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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Children's strategies in computational estimation
We investigated strategies used to estimate answers to addition problems. Two hundred and sixteen participants (72 adults, 72 sixth graders, and 72 fourth graders) had to provide estimates of three-by-three digit addition problems (e.g., 249+743). The choice/no-choice method was used to obtain unbias...
Orthographic learning during reading: examining the role of self-teaching
We obtained a substantial correlation (r=.52) between orthographic learning and the number of target homophones correctly decoded during story reading. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that neither RAN tasks nor general cognitive ability predicted variance in orthographic learning...
Remembering versus knowing the past: children's explicit and implicit memories for pictures.
Two studies are reported examining children's explicit and implicit memory for pictures, using measures of recognition memory and perceptual facilitation. In Experiment 1, 3-year-olds showed significant implicit memory, as assessed by perceptual facilitation in identifying blurred pictures after a 3...
On estimating processing variance: commentary and reanalysis of Kail's "Developmental functions for speeds of cognitive processes".
We have reanalyzed these results. The corrected values range from 0.9 to 92.1% for the individual tasks with an overall average between 40 and 60%. We suggest that the support for the original conclusions is considerably weaker than reported....
Eliminating selective stimulus control: a comparison of two procedures for teaching mentally retarded children to respond to compound stimul...
Selective stimulus control occurs when behavior fails to come under control of all characteristics of a compound stimulus after discrimination training. Two different assessment procedures, one used in prior research and the other incorporating incorrect stimuli (S - 's) which differ...
Infants learn enduring functions of novel tools from action demonstrations.
We show that 13.5-month-old infants encode arbitrary end states of action sequences in relation to the novel tools employed to bring them about. These mappings are not formed if the same end states of action sequences cannot be interpreted as action goals. Moreover, the tool-goal mappings acquired f...
The role of social interaction and pedagogical cues for eliciting and reducing overimitation in preschoolers.
We investigated (a) whether communication of a model performing irrelevant actions is necessary to elicit overimitation in preschoolers and (b) whether communication of another model performing an efficient action modulates the subsequent reduction of overimitation. In the study, 5-year-olds imitate...
The influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness: no own-age or own-sex advantage among children attending single-sex scho...
We examined how recent biased face experience affects the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness among 8- and 9-year-old children attending a girls' school, a boys' school, and a mixed-sex school. We presented pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% to...
Transcoding abilities in typical and atypical mathematics achievers: the role of working memory and procedural and lexical competencies.
We observed that children with learning difficulties in mathematics demonstrated lower achievement in number transcoding in both early and middle elementary school. In early elementary school, difficulties were observed in both the basic numerical lexicon and the management of numerical syntax. In m...
The influence of averageness on children's judgments of facial attractiveness.
We examined developmental changes in the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness by showing adults and children pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% toward its group average, whereas the other face was transformed 50% away from that average. In one c...