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Horizontal transmission of a parasite is influenced by infected host phenotype and density.
We investigate how the ratio of infected to susceptible individuals impacts parasite transmission, using the honey bee, Apis mellifera and its microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae. We used 2 types of infected hosts found simultaneously in colonies; sterile female workers and sexual males. We found...
Detection of high levels of anti-α-galactosyl antibodies in sera of patients with Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis: a possible tool for dia...
We report the development of a chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA) to measure the levels of anti-α-galactosyl antibodies in human sera. Using this assay, we have found that individuals infected with either Leishmania spp. had significantly elevated levels (up to 9-fold high...
Monepantel: the most studied new anthelmintic drug of recent years.
Monepantel (MOP), a new anthelmintic drug from a group of amino-acetonitrile derivatives, has been intensively studied during last years. Many authors examined this new drug from different perspectives, e.g. efficacy against different species and stages of parasites, mode of action, metabolism, phar...
Cryptosporidium infections: molecular advances.
We summarize the recent advances in research on host cell infection regarding the excystation process, attachment and invasion, survival in the cell, egress and the available data on omics....
Advantages and disadvantages of conditional systems for characterization of essential genes in Toxoplasma gondii.
We describe different techniques available for the generation of conditional mutants. Comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of the three most commonly used regulation systems: the tetracycline inducible system, the regulation of protein stability and site-specific recombination are discusse...
Nematode Hsp90: highly conserved but functionally diverse.
We consider the role of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in the nematode life cycle. We describe studies on Hsp90 in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and comparative work on the parasitic species Brugia pahangi, and consider whether a dependence upon Hsp90 can be exploited for the contro...
Toxoplasma gondii induce apoptosis of neural stem cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.
We found that apoptosis levels of the NSCs co-cultured with 1×106 RH tachyzoites for 24 and 48 h significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner, as compared with the control. Western blotting analysis displayed that the protein level of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) was up-regulated, and caspa...
Liposomes produced by reverse phase evaporation: in vitro and in vivo efficacy of diminazene aceturate against Trypanosoma evansi.
This study aimed to develop and test the in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of diminazene aceturate encapsulated into liposomes (L-DMZ) on Trypanosoma evansi. To validate the in vitro tests with L-DMZ, the efficacy of a commercial formulation of diminazene aceturate (C-DMZ) was also assessed. The te...
Modelling inter-human transmission dynamics of Chagas disease: analysis and application.
We present a mathematical model to analyse the dynamics of urban Chagas to better understand its epidemiology. The model considers the three clinical stages of the disease and the main routes of inter-human transmission. To overcome the complexities of the infection dynamics, the next-generation mat...
Functional study of a genetic marker allele associated with resistance to Ascaris suum in pigs.
We selected pigs with two SNP TXNIP genotypes (AA; n = 24 and AB; n = 24), trickle-infected them with A. suum from 8 weeks of age until necropsy 8 weeks later, and tested the hypothesis that pigs with the AA genotype would have higher levels of resistance than pigs of AB genotype. We used different...