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  1. The influence of temperature on the development, hatching and survival of Nematodirus battus larvae.

    Parasitology 135(2):269 (2008) PMID 17991303

    Although Nematodirus battus (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) is an economically important and highly pathogenic parasite of sheep in the temperate regions, very little is known about the population dynamics of its free-living stages and their relationship with ambient temperature. Here we describ...
  2. Searching for general patterns in parasite ecology: host identity versus environmental influence on gamasid mite assemblages in small mammals.

    Parasitology 135(2):229 (2008) PMID 17908362

    The abundance and diversity of parasites vary among different populations of host species. In some host-parasite associations, much of the variation seems to depend on the identity of the host species, whereas in other cases it is better explained by local environmental conditions. The few paras...
  3. Expression of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 STEVOR proteins for evaluation of antibody responses following malaria infections in naïve infants.

    Parasitology 135(2):155 (2008) PMID 17931459

    Clinical immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria develops after repeated exposure to the parasite. At least 2 P. falciparum variant antigens encoded by multicopy gene families (var and rif) are targets of this adaptive antibody-mediated immunity. A third multigene family of variant antigens co...
  4. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi effects of cyclosporin A derivatives: possible role of a P-glycoprotein and parasite cyclophilins.

    Parasitology 135(2):217 (2008) PMID 17922928

    Cyclophilins are target molecules for cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressive antimicrobial drug. We have previously reported the in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of H-7-94 and F-7-62 non-immunosuppressive CsA analogues. In this work, we continue the study of the parasiticidal effect o...
  5. Gene expression profiling of Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani: overcoming technical variation and exploiting biological variation.

    Parasitology 135(2):183 (2008) PMID 17931458

    Gene expression profiling is increasingly used in the field of infectious diseases for characterization of host, pathogen and the nature of their interaction. The purpose of this study was to develop a robust, standardized method for comparative expression profiling and molecular characterizatio...
  6. A rapid and sensitive intracellular flow cytometric assay to identify Theileria parva infection within target cells.

    Parasitology 135(2):195 (2008) PMID 17892619 PMCID PMC2628746

    Theileria parva is an intracellular protozoan parasite transmitted by ticks that causes a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle known as East Coast Fever. Vaccination against the disease currently relies on inoculation of the infective sporozoite stage of the parasite and simultaneous trea...
  7. Halfway up the trophic chain: development of parasite communities in the sparid fish Boops boops.

    Parasitology 135(2):257 (2008) PMID 17908363

    We examined the patterns of composition and structure of parasite communities in the Mediterranean sparid fish Boops boops along a gradient of fish sizes, using a large sample from a single population. We tested the hypothesis that species forming the core of the bogue parasite fauna (i.e. speci...
  8. Evidence that primary infection of Charollais sheep with Toxoplasma gondii may not prevent foetal infection and abortion in subsequent lambings.

    Parasitology 135(2):169 (2008) PMID 17922930

    A study carried out on a sheep farm examined whether Toxoplasma gondii foetal infection and associated abortion occur in successive lambings. We identified 29 ewes that gave birth to lambs on at least 2 successive years over our study period, 2000-2003. Tissue samples from the progeny of these e...
  9. Widespread infection of the Eastern red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens) by a new species of Amphibiocystidium, a genus of fungus-like mesomycetozoan parasites not previously reported in North America.

    Parasitology 135(2):203 (2008) PMID 17931460

    Given the worldwide decline of amphibian populations due to emerging infectious diseases, it is imperative that we identify and address the causative agents. Many of the pathogens recently implicated in amphibian mortality and morbidity have been fungal or members of a poorly understood group of...
  10. Identification and localization of a putative ATP-binding cassette transporter in sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and host Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Parasitology 135(2):243 (2008) PMID 17961285

    Some members of the ABC-transporter superfamily, such as P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance associated protein, may confer resistance to the avermectin subclass of macrocyclic lactones. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of ABC transporters in both sea lice (Lepeophtheiru...
  11. Quantitative analysis of parasite DNA in the blood of immunized and naïve mice after infection with Neospora caninum.

    Parasitology 135(2):175 (2008) PMID 17922929

    Real-time PCR was used to study the duration and level of parasitaemia in mice immunized with immune-stimulating complexes (iscoms) containing recombinant NcSRS2, one of the immunodominant surface antigens of Neospora caninum. After challenge infection, blood was collected daily for 9 days. Duri...
  12. Transgenesis of schistosomes: approaches employing mobile genetic elements.

    Parasitology 135(2):141 (2008) PMID 17991304

    Draft genome sequences for Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum are now available. However, the identity and importance of most schistosome genes have yet to be determined. Recently, progress has been made towards the genetic manipulation and transgenesis of schistosomes. Both loss-of-f...
  13. Vesicle trafficking during sporozoite development in Plasmodium berghei: ultrastructural evidence for a novel trafficking mechanism.

    Parasitology 135(Pt 1):1 (2008) PMID 17908361

    Oocysts from Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes fed on murine blood infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei, were fixed for electron microscopy 6-12 days post-feeding. Ultrastructural analysis focused on Golgi-related trafficking pathways for rhoptry and microneme formation during sporogony. A smal...
  14. Metalloproteases and egg-hatching in Pediculus humanus, the body (clothes) louse of humans (Phthiraptera: Insecta).

    Parasitology 135(Pt 1):125 (2008) PMID 17892616

    To investigate the biochemical components of egg-hatch in the body louse, Pediculus humanus, egg-shell-washings (ESW) were collected during the first 2 h post-hatching and analysed by gelatin SDS-PAGE. These ESW contained proteases with molecular mass in the range of 25-100 kDa; the most abundan...
  15. Different methods, different results: temporal trends in the study of nested subset patterns in parasite communities.

    Parasitology 135(Pt 1):131 (2008) PMID 17825118

    The search for nested subset patterns has become a powerful tool for understanding the processes shaping parasite communities. Here, we re-examine the results of past studies on nestedness in parasite communities, to assess how sensitive they are to the analytical method used. Using the metric N...
  16. Molecular evidence of prevalent dual piroplasma infections in North American raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Parasitology 135(Pt 1):33 (2008) PMID 17767797

    Based on 18S rRNA sequence analyses 2 distinct genotypes of piroplasms have been described in raccoons. One genotype resides in the Babesia sensu stricto clade and the other in the Babesia microti-like clade. Since these organisms appear morphologically indistinguishable, it is unclear which str...
  17. Inoculation of Balb/c mice with live attenuated tachyzoites protects against a lethal challenge of Neospora caninum.

    Parasitology 135(Pt 1):13 (2008) PMID 17767798

    Neospora caninum tachyzoites attenuated through passage in tissue culture were tested for their ability to induce protective immunity against a lethal challenge dose of parasites. Balb/c mice were each inoculated with either 1x10(6) live virulent tachyzoites (Group 1) or 1x10(6) live attenuated ...
  18. Isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from Ugandan chickens reveals frequent multiple infections.

    Parasitology 135(Pt 1):39 (2008) PMID 17892617

    The genetic make-up of an infecting Toxoplasma gondii strain may be important for the outcome of infection and the risk of reactivation of chronic disease. In order to survey the distribution of different genotypes within an area, free-range chickens act as a good model species. In this study 85...
  19. Mechanisms underlying reduced expulsion of a murine nematode infection during protein deficiency.

    Parasitology 135(Pt 1):81 (2008) PMID 17908360

    Balb/c mice infected with the gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides bakeri were fed protein sufficient (PS, 24%) or deficient (PD, 3%) diets to investigate whether diet, infection or dose of larval challenge (0, 100 or 200 larvae) influenced gut pathophysiology and inflammation. Among the PS...
  20. Breed differences in mucosal and systemic antibody response to nematode infection in sheep: an important role for IgE?

    Parasitology 135(Pt 1):71 (2008) PMID 17903317

    This study compared the immunological and biochemical responses of co-grazed Suffolk and Texel lambs to a natural gastrointestinal nematode infection. Variables analysed included serum pepsinogen, total protein, albumin, haematological variables and nematode-specific serum immunoglobulin activit...