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Decreased ROS level and activation of antioxidant gene expression in Agrobacterium rhizogenes pRiA4-transformed calli of Rubia cordifolia.
We tested whether transformation of Rubia cordifolia cells by Agrobacterium rhizogenes had a similar effect. We isolated partial cDNA sequences of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase genes (RcApx1, RcApx2, RcApx3, RcCAT1, RcCAT2, RcCSD1, RcCSD2 and RcCSD3) from plant tissue...
Sustained enhancement of photosynthesis in mature deciduous forest trees after 8 years of free air CO(2) enrichment.
We investigated gas exchange characteristics and leaf traits in five deciduous tree species during their eighth growing season under free air carbon dioxide enrichment in a 35-m tall, ca. 100-year-old mixed forest. Net photosynthesis of upper-canopy foliage was 48% (July) and 42% (September) higher...
Acclimation of photosynthesis to nitrogen deficiency in Phaseolus vulgaris.
We studied adjustments of the photosynthetic machinery in nitrogen-deficient bean plants and found four phenomena. First, the number of chloroplasts per cell decreased. Chloroplasts of nitrogen starved leaves contained less pigments than those of control leaves, but the in vitro activities of light...
Patterns of molecular evolution and predicted function in thaumatin-like proteins of Populus trichocarpa.
We report the patterns of molecular evolution in thaumatin-like protein (TLP, PR5 protein) genes of Populus trichocarpa. Signs of positive selection were found in 20 out of 55 Populus TLPs using the likelihood ratio test and ML-based Bayesian methods. Due to the connection between the acidic cleft a...
Rice fruit development is associated with an increased IAA content in pollinated ovaries.
We established an in vitro spikelet culture system. The ovary of cultured pollinated spikelets grew rapidly and developed into fruits with an embryo and endosperm. When unpollinated spikelets were cultured on a medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, parthenocarpic fruits lacking an embryo...
Biochemical characterization of the small ubiquitin-like modifiers of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
We show that the formation of polymeric CrSUMO96 and CrSUMO97 chains can be catalyzed either by the human SAE1/SAE2 and Ubc9 SUMOylation system in vitro or by an Escherichia coli chimeric SUMOylation system in vivo. An exposed C-terminal di-glycine motif of CrSUMO96 or CrSUMO97 is essential for func...
Evaluation of candidate reference genes for expression studies in Pisum sativum under different experimental conditions.
Our goal was to test the regulation of 11 potential references for pea. These included eight commonly used and three new candidates. Twenty-six samples, including different tissues, treatments and genotypes, were addressed in this analysis. For reliable data normalization, the most suitable combinat...
Leaf rust induced volatile organic compounds signalling in willow during the infection.
We used a willow-leaf rust system to describe the effects of a biotrophic fungal infection on the VOC emission pattern of willow leaves. We detected that isoprene emissions from rust-infected leaves decreased threefold compared to control. The total monoterpene emissions did not change although a st...
Establishment of an in vitro fertilization system in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
In vitro fertilization (IVF) systems using isolated male and female gametes have been utilized to dissect fertilization-induced events in angiosperms, such as egg activation, zygote development and early embryogenesis, as the female gametophytes of plants are deeply embedded within ovaries. In this...
Occurrence of "mammalian" lignans in plant and water sources.
Enterolignans, also called "mammalian" lignans because they are formed in the intestine of mammals after ingestion of plant lignans, were identified for the first time in extracts of four tree species, i.e., in knot heartwood of the hardwood species Fagus sylvatica and in knot or stem heartwood of t...