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Photosynthetic costs and benefits of abaxial versus adaxial anthocyanins in Colocasia esculenta 'Mojito'.
We test the hypothesis that abaxial anthocyanins protect leaves of understory plants from photo-oxidative stress via light attenuation during periodic exposure to high incident sunlight in the forest understory, without interfering with sunlight capture and photosynthesis during shade conditions. We...
Role of asparaginase variable loop at the carboxyl terminal of the alpha subunit in the determination of substrate preference in plants.
Structural determinants responsible for the substrate preference of the potassium-independent (ASPGA1) and -dependent (ASPGB1) asparaginases from Arabidopsis thaliana have been investigated. Like ASPGA1, ASPGB1 was found to be catalytically active with both L: -Asn and β-Asp-His as...
Inhibition of aconitase in citrus fruit callus results in a metabolic shift towards amino acid biosynthesis.
We investigated the effect of citramalate and of another aconitase inhibitor, oxalomalate, on aconitase activity and regulation in callus originated from juice sacs. These compounds significantly increased citrate content and reduced the enzyme's activity, while slightly inducing its protein level....
Decreased ROS level and activation of antioxidant gene expression in Agrobacterium rhizogenes pRiA4-transformed calli of Rubia cordifolia.
We tested whether transformation of Rubia cordifolia cells by Agrobacterium rhizogenes had a similar effect. We isolated partial cDNA sequences of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase genes (RcApx1, RcApx2, RcApx3, RcCAT1, RcCAT2, RcCSD1, RcCSD2 and RcCSD3) from plant tissue...
Sustained enhancement of photosynthesis in mature deciduous forest trees after 8 years of free air CO(2) enrichment.
We investigated gas exchange characteristics and leaf traits in five deciduous tree species during their eighth growing season under free air carbon dioxide enrichment in a 35-m tall, ca. 100-year-old mixed forest. Net photosynthesis of upper-canopy foliage was 48% (July) and 42% (September) higher...
Acclimation of photosynthesis to nitrogen deficiency in Phaseolus vulgaris.
We studied adjustments of the photosynthetic machinery in nitrogen-deficient bean plants and found four phenomena. First, the number of chloroplasts per cell decreased. Chloroplasts of nitrogen starved leaves contained less pigments than those of control leaves, but the in vitro activities of light...
Patterns of molecular evolution and predicted function in thaumatin-like proteins of Populus trichocarpa.
We report the patterns of molecular evolution in thaumatin-like protein (TLP, PR5 protein) genes of Populus trichocarpa. Signs of positive selection were found in 20 out of 55 Populus TLPs using the likelihood ratio test and ML-based Bayesian methods. Due to the connection between the acidic cleft a...
Rice fruit development is associated with an increased IAA content in pollinated ovaries.
We established an in vitro spikelet culture system. The ovary of cultured pollinated spikelets grew rapidly and developed into fruits with an embryo and endosperm. When unpollinated spikelets were cultured on a medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, parthenocarpic fruits lacking an embryo...
Biochemical characterization of the small ubiquitin-like modifiers of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
We show that the formation of polymeric CrSUMO96 and CrSUMO97 chains can be catalyzed either by the human SAE1/SAE2 and Ubc9 SUMOylation system in vitro or by an Escherichia coli chimeric SUMOylation system in vivo. An exposed C-terminal di-glycine motif of CrSUMO96 or CrSUMO97 is essential for func...
Evaluation of candidate reference genes for expression studies in Pisum sativum under different experimental conditions.
Our goal was to test the regulation of 11 potential references for pea. These included eight commonly used and three new candidates. Twenty-six samples, including different tissues, treatments and genotypes, were addressed in this analysis. For reliable data normalization, the most suitable combinat...