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Interaction of solar protons and galactic cosmic radiation with the atmosphere and other materials produces high-energy secondary neutrons from below 1 to 1000 MeV and higher. Although secondary neutrons may provide an appreciable component of the radiation dose equivalent received by space and ...
The murine Chk2 kinase is activated after exposure to ionizing radiation and is necessary for p53-dependent apoptosis, but the role Chk2 plays in determining genomic stability is poorly understood. By analyzing the sensitivity of Chk2-deficient murine and human cells to a range of DNA-damaging a...
Low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) is the phenomenon whereby cells exposed to radiation doses of less than approximately 0.5 Gy exhibit increased cell killing relative to that predicted from back-extrapolating high-dose survival data using a linear-quadratic model. While the exact mechanism r...
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of 50 Hz magnetic or static magnetic fields of 0.5 mT on subsets of human CD4(+) T cells in terms of cytokine release/content, cell proliferation and intracellular free calcium concentration. CD4(+) T cells can be divided into different subs...
Two recent studies analyzed thyroid cancer incidence in Belarus and Ukraine during the period from 1990 to 2001, for the birth cohort 1968 to 1985, and the related (131)I exposure associated with the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Contradictory age-at-exposure and time-since-exposure effect modific...
Gamma radiation is known to induce cell death in several organs. This damage is associated with endonuclease-mediated DNA fragmentation; however, the enzyme that produces the latter and is likely to cause cell death is unknown. To determine whether the most abundant cytotoxic endonuclease DNase ...
The effects of TMG [2-(alpha-d-glucopyranosyl) methyl-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-6-ol], a water-soluble vitamin E derivative, administered after irradiation on the mortality of X-irradiated mice and on the development of tumors in the mammary and pituitary glands in rats were investigated. When ...
Space travel imposes risks to human health, in large part by the increased radiation levels compared to those on Earth. To understand the effects of space radiation on humans, it is important to determine the underlying cellular mechanisms. While general dosimetry describes average radiation lev...