Radiation Research

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  1. Biological effects of high-energy neutrons measured in vivo using a vertebrate model.

    Radiation Research 172(4):473 (2009) PMID 19772468 PMCID PMC2796447

    Interaction of solar protons and galactic cosmic radiation with the atmosphere and other materials produces high-energy secondary neutrons from below 1 to 1000 MeV and higher. Although secondary neutrons may provide an appreciable component of the radiation dose equivalent received by space and ...
  2. Chk2 protects against radiation-induced genomic instability.

    Radiation Research 172(4):463 (2009) PMID 19772467

    The murine Chk2 kinase is activated after exposure to ionizing radiation and is necessary for p53-dependent apoptosis, but the role Chk2 plays in determining genomic stability is poorly understood. By analyzing the sensitivity of Chk2-deficient murine and human cells to a range of DNA-damaging a...
  3. The age at which cancer occurs-an overlooked parameter!

    Radiation Research 172(4):525 (2009) PMID 19772474

  4. Recognition of O6MeG lesions by MGMT and mismatch repair proficiency may be a prerequisite for low-dose radiation hypersensitivity.

    Radiation Research 172(4):405 (2009) PMID 19772461

    Low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) is the phenomenon whereby cells exposed to radiation doses of less than approximately 0.5 Gy exhibit increased cell killing relative to that predicted from back-extrapolating high-dose survival data using a linear-quadratic model. While the exact mechanism r...
  5. Reversible effect of magnetic fields on human lymphocyte activation patterns: different sensitivity of naive and memory lymphocyte subsets.

    Radiation Research 172(4):444 (2009) PMID 19772465

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of 50 Hz magnetic or static magnetic fields of 0.5 mT on subsets of human CD4(+) T cells in terms of cytokine release/content, cell proliferation and intracellular free calcium concentration. CD4(+) T cells can be divided into different subs...
  6. Radiation risk modeling of thyroid cancer with special emphasis on the Chernobyl epidemiological data.

    Radiation Research 172(4):509 (2009) PMID 19772472

    Two recent studies analyzed thyroid cancer incidence in Belarus and Ukraine during the period from 1990 to 2001, for the birth cohort 1968 to 1985, and the related (131)I exposure associated with the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Contradictory age-at-exposure and time-since-exposure effect modific...
  7. Patricia W. Durbin (1927-2009).

    Radiation Research 172(4):526 (2009) PMID 19772475

  8. Deoxyribonuclease I is essential for DNA fragmentation induced by gamma radiation in mice.

    Radiation Research 172(4):481 (2009) PMID 19772469

    Gamma radiation is known to induce cell death in several organs. This damage is associated with endonuclease-mediated DNA fragmentation; however, the enzyme that produces the latter and is likely to cause cell death is unknown. To determine whether the most abundant cytotoxic endonuclease DNase ...
  9. Modification of mortality and tumorigenesis by tocopherol-mono-glucoside (TMG) administered after X irradiation in mice and rats.

    Radiation Research 172(4):519 (2009) PMID 19772473

    The effects of TMG [2-(alpha-d-glucopyranosyl) methyl-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-6-ol], a water-soluble vitamin E derivative, administered after irradiation on the mortality of X-irradiated mice and on the development of tumors in the mammary and pituitary glands in rats were investigated. When ...
  10. High content analysis of human fibroblast cell cultures after exposure to space radiation.

    Radiation Research 172(4):423 (2009) PMID 19772463

    Space travel imposes risks to human health, in large part by the increased radiation levels compared to those on Earth. To understand the effects of space radiation on humans, it is important to determine the underlying cellular mechanisms. While general dosimetry describes average radiation lev...
  11. Induction of cytokine gene expression in human thyroid epithelial cells irradiated with HZE particles (iron ions).

    Radiation Research 172(4):437 (2009) PMID 19772464 PMCID PMC2790807

    Gene expression profiles were examined using cDNA microarray technology in human thyroid epithelial (Htori-3) cells exposed to a low, non-toxic dose (10 cGy) of radiation from HZE particles in the form of iron ions in the absence or presence of selenomethionine (SeM). A total of 215 genes were d...
  12. Gene expression changes in medical workers exposed to radiation.

    Radiation Research 172(4):500 (2009) PMID 19772471

    The use of nuclear resources for medical purposes causes considerable concern about occupational exposure. Nevertheless, little information is available regarding the effects of low-dose irradiations protracted over time. We used oligomicroarrays to identify the genes that are transcriptionally ...
  13. Photodynamic treatment of culture medium containing serum induces long-lasting toxicity in vitro.

    Radiation Research 172(4):451 (2009) PMID 19772466

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) produces singlet oxygen and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage tumor cells and the vasculature. The resulting effect is a balance between photo-oxidations through primary or secondary ROS and scavenging activity. Sensitizers are distributed in the extracellular ...
  14. Synthetic protection short interfering RNA screen reveals glyburide as a novel radioprotector.

    Radiation Research 172(4):414 (2009) PMID 19772462 PMCID PMC2782411

    To assist in screening existing drugs for use as potential radioprotectors, we used a human unbiased 16,560 short interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting the druggable genome. We performed a synthetic protection screen that was designed to identify genes that, when silenced, protected human gl...
  15. Biodistribution of (10)B for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in a mouse model after injection of sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate and l-para-boronophenylalanine.

    Radiation Research 172(4):493 (2009) PMID 19772470

    In boron neutron capture therapy, the absorbed dose from the (10)B(n,alpha)(7)Li reaction depends on the (10)B concentration and (10)B distribution in the irradiated volume. Thus compounds used in BNCT should have tumor-specific uptake and low accumulation in normal tissues. This study compares ...
  16. In vitro and in vivo optimization of an anti-glioma modality based on synchrotron X-ray photoactivation of platinated drugs.

    Radiation Research 172(3):348 (2009) PMID 19708784

    For the past 5 years, a radio-chemotherapy approach based on the photoactivation of platinum atoms (PAT-Plat) consisting of treating tumors with platinated compounds and irradiating them above the platinum K edge (78.4 keV) has been developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Greno...
  17. Geldanamycin analog 17-DMAG inhibits iNOS and caspases in gamma-irradiated human T cells.

    Radiation Research 172(3):321 (2009) PMID 19708781

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production increase after radiation exposure. We showed previously that inhibiting iNOS expression prevents hemorrhage injury; we therefore investigated whether inhibiting iNOS expression also limits radiation injury. Human Jurkat T cells ...
  18. Radiation sensitivities in the terminal stages of megakaryocytic maturation and platelet production.

    Radiation Research 172(3):314 (2009) PMID 19708780

    These studies examined the effects of X radiation and interleukin 3 (IL-3), which is an effective cytokine for the generation of megakaryocytopoiesis from X-irradiated hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, on the terminal process of human megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis. Mature megakaryoc...
  19. Distribution of double-strand breaks induced by ionizing radiation at the level of single DNA molecules examined by atomic force microscopy.

    Radiation Research 172(3):288 (2009) PMID 19708777

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most critical radiation-induced lesions, because they result in the fragmentation of the DNA molecule and because a single unrepaired DSB may lead to cell death. We present the results of radiation-induced fragmentation of plasmid DNA analyzed by atomic force ...
  20. Induction of DNA strand breaks, base lesions and clustered damage sites in hydrated plasmid DNA films by ultrasoft X rays around the phosphorus K edge.

    Radiation Research 172(3):296 (2009) PMID 19708778

    To characterize the DNA damage induced by K-shell ionization of phosphorus atom in DNA backbone on the level of hydration, the yields of DNA strand breaks and base lesions arising from the interaction of ultrasoft X rays with energies around the phosphorus K edge were determined using dry and fu...