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Scorpion venom components that affect ion-channels function.
The number and types of venom components that affect ion-channel function are reviewed. These are the most important venom components responsible for human intoxication, deserving medical attention, often requiring the use of specific anti-venoms. Special emphasis is given to peptides that recognize...
Defensive chemicals of tawny crazy ants, Nylanderia fulva (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and their toxicity to red imported fire ants, Solenopsis...
Nylanderia fulva (Mayr) has been reported as being able to displace Solenopsis invicta Buren, one of the most aggressive invasive ants in the world. Like S. invicta, N. fulva use chemical secretions in their defense/offense, which may contribute to their observed superior competition ability. In thi...
Snake venomics: from the inventory of toxins to biology.
A deep understanding of the composition of venoms and of the principles governing the evolution of venomous systems is of applied importance for exploring the enormous potential of venoms as sources of chemical and pharmacological novelty but also to fight the dire consequences of snakebite envenomi...
Linear B-cell epitopes in BthTX-1, BthTX-II and BthA-1, phospholipase A₂'s from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom, recognized by therapeutica...
Our studies suggest that the harmful activities of the PLA₂s present in the venom of B. jararacussu are neutralized by the combinatorial treatment with both antivenom sera through their complementary binding sites, which provides a wide coverage on the PLA₂s. This is the first peptide microarray of...
The rat Digit Abduction Score (DAS) assay: A physiological model for assessing botulinum neurotoxin-induced skeletal muscle paralysis.
We applied the DAS assay to a rat model and compared the potency of IM-BOTOX(®) (onabotulinumtoxinA) injections between two separate hind limb muscles, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior (TA). The results demonstrated that the DAS assay can be performed on rats with similar criteria and parameters...
Glycolic acid inhibits enzymatic, hemorrhagic and edema-inducing activities of BaP1, a P-I metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper snake venom...
We tested the inhibitory ability of glycolic acid on the enzymatic, hemorrhagic and edema-inducing activities of BaP1, a P-I metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper venom, which induces a variety of toxic actions. Glycolic acid inhibited the proteolytic activity of BaP1 on azocasein, with an IC50 of 1...
Bothropic antivenom based on monoclonal antibodies, is it possible?
Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against three major toxic components of Bothrops atrox venom were produced and tested. The mAbs against phospholipase A2, hemorrhagic metalloprotease, and thrombin-like enzymes were produced in large amounts and purified with caprylic acid followed by ammonium sulf...
μ-Theraphotoxin-An1a: primary structure determination and assessment of the pharmacological activity of a promiscuous anti-insect toxin from...
Tarantulas are included in the mygalomorph spider family Theraphosidae. Although the pharmacological diversity of theraphosid toxins (theraphotoxins) is broad, studies dedicated to the characterization of biologically active molecules from the theraphosid genus Acanthoscurria have been restricted to...
Medical aspects of bio-terrorism.
Bioterrorism is a terrorist action involving the intentional release or dissemination of a biological warfare agent (BWA), which includes some bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, fungi or biological toxins. BWA is a naturally occurring or human-modified form that may kill or incapacitate humans, animals...
Dissolved azaspiracids are absorbed and metabolized by blue mussels (Mytilus edulis).
We evaluated whether mussels were capable of accumulating dissolved AZA1 and -2, and compared the toxin profiles of these mussels at 24 h with profiles of those exposed to live or lysed A. spinosum. We also assessed the possibility of preparative production of AZA metabolites by exposing mussels to...