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Metal ions in macrophage antimicrobial pathways: emerging roles for zinc and copper.
We review the roles of these two metal ions in providing protection against infectious diseases in vivo, and in regulating innate immune responses. In particular, we focus on studies implicating zinc and copper in macrophage antimicrobial pathways, as well as the specific host genes encoding zinc tr...
Mutations in Tyr808 reveal a potential auto-inhibitory mechanism of guanylate cyclase-B regulation.
In this study, Tyr808 in GC-B (guanylate cyclase-B), a receptor of the CNP (C-type natriuretic peptide), has been shown to be a critical regulator of GC-B activity. In searching for phosphorylation sites that could account for suppression of GC-B activity by S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate), mutations...
Defining the boundaries of species specificity for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase using a quantitati...
In eukaryotes, GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) lipid anchoring of proteins is an abundant post-translational modification. The attachment of the GPI anchor is mediated by GPI-T (GPI transamidase), a multimeric, membrane-bound enzyme located in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). Upon modification, GP...
Primary human endothelial cells secrete agents that reduce responsiveness to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA).
We considered one explanation for this paradox: that ECs secrete agents that attenuate responsiveness to LPA. Indeed, we observed that CM (conditioned medium) from confluent, quiescent cultures of primary HUVECs (human umbilical vein ECs) contained an agent that inhibited LPA-mediated signalling eve...
Acetylsalicylic acid regulates overexpressed small GTPase RhoA in vascular smooth muscle cells through prevention of new synthesis and enhan...
We in this study aimed to investigate the effect of aspirin on RhoA expression under stress state in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the underlying mechanisms. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and iNOS activity as well as NO concentration were significantly promo...
Amoxicillin-bearing microparticles: potential in the treatment of Listeria monocytogenes infection in Swiss albino mice.
The present study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of amoxicillin bearing human serum albumin (HSA) and poly-lactic glycolic acid (PLGA) microparticles in combating Listeria monocytogenes infection in Swiss albino mice. Amoxicillin bearing HSA microspheres were prepared by che...
IEX-1 suppresses apoptotic damage in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells induced by co-culturing with macrophage-like THP-1 cells.
We previously reported that apoptosis of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells is induced by coculturing with human macrophage-like THP-1 cells, mainly via the action of TNF-a secreted from THP-1 cells (Satsu et al., 2006). Our recent DNA microarray analysis of cocultured Caco-2 cells showed that immed...
Phytolacca americana lectin (Pa-2; pokeweed mitogen): an intrinsically unordered protein and its conversion into partial order at low pH.
This is the first report of its kind that well demonstrates that a lectin from Phytolacca americana [Pa-2 (P. americana lectin-2)] can also be intrinsically unordered, based on the results obtained by CD, tryptophan fluorescence, ANS (8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) binding, acrylamide quenchi...
Genetically modified adenoviral vector with the protein transduction domain of Tat improves gene transfer to CAR-deficient cells
The transduction efficiency of Ad (adenovirus) depends, to some extent, on the expression level of CAR (coxsackievirus and Ad receptor) of a target cell. The low level of CAR on the cell surface is a potential barrier to efficient gene transfer. To overcome this problem, PTD.AdeGFP (where eGFP is en...
Proteomic identification of the silkworm (Bombyx mori L) prothoracic glands during the fifth instar stage.
We utilized a proteomic approach to investigate the fifth instar prothoracic gland during the growth and development of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. The two-dimensional electrophoresis results showed that the majority of proteins were acidic proteins, especially concentrated in the area of 25-65 kDa...