Veterinary and Human Toxicology
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The roots of toxicology: an etymology approach.
We investigated the roots of toxicology and showed the Greek origin of the word. A number of selected ancient Greek and Byzantine works show the etymology and meaning of the adjective "toxic" or "toxical" as the first composition of "toxicology". Even from early antiquity "toxic" or "toxical" have b...
Acute toxicity, primary irritancy, and genetic toxicity studies with 3-(methylthio)propionaldehyde.
Basic acute toxicity, primary irritancy, and genetic toxicity studies were conducted with 3-(methylthio)propionaldehyde (3-MTP). The acute rat peroral LD50 (with 95% confidence limits) for 3-MTP as a 25% (v/v) dilution in corn oil was 1.00 (0.59-1.70) ml/kg (males) and 1.68 (0.95-2.99) ml/kg (female...
Anaphylactoid reaction to rattlesnake envenomation.
We present a case of an anaphylactoid reaction in a 62-y-o female following a first-time envenomation by a rattlesnake. The patient required s.c. epinephrine and i.v. diphenhydramine, methylprednisolone, and ranitidine. She had not been envenomated by a rattlesnake previously or received any horse-d...
Ammoniated forage poisoning: acute toxicity of newly identified dialkylimidazoles to inbred mice.
The i.p. acute toxicity of the dialkylimidazoles 1,2-dimethylimidazole, 1,4-dimethylimidazole, 1,5-dimethylimidazole, 2,4-dimethylimidazole and 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole was investigated in C57B1 female mice, and compared to the toxicity of 4-methylimidazole (4-MI). An approximate median lethal dose...
Fatal privet (Ligustrum amurease) toxicosis in Tennessee cows.
Five of 24 cows pastured in a 40-acre field in east Tennessee died after they consumed leaves from a privet (Ligustrum amurease) hedge. Clinical findings included ataxia, recumbency with an inability to stand, depression, greenish nasal discharge, cessation of rumination, normal body temperature, an...
The availability of activated charcoal and ipecac for home use.
We conducted a telephone survey. One-hundred and 18 pharmacies were randomly selected from the 59 counties in California to assess availability of AC (liquid or powder) and/or ipecac. Ninety-four (80%) pharmacies participated. Seventy-nine of the pharmacies had ipecac compared to 8 which had AC. Thr...
Effects of simultaneous administration of desferrioxamine and tacrine in rats.
These results open the possibility of considering the effectiveness of simultaneous administration of DFO and tacrine as a palliative treatment for AD patients....
Approval of drugs and chemicals for use by the aquaculture industry.
Progress has been made by focusing on the actions required to resolve the important issues related to the use of chemicals and drugs in aquaculture. Consensus has been built regarding priority needs for drugs and some funding has been obtained that will help generate the data required for drug appro...
Toxicity of waterproofing spray is influenced by the mist particle size.
We showed that waterproofing sprays that are toxic generate mists with smaller particles than do nontoxic products. In this study, we made 4 waterproofing sprays (A, B, C and D) with identical ingredients but with different mist particle sizes and compared the pathological changes produced in the lu...
The status and future of toxicology in Japan and the Pacific rim.