Brain Research Reviews
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Where the thoughts dwell: The physiology of neuronal-glial ''diffuse neural net''
Our understanding of the brain function is very much shaped by the neuronal doctrine that assumes that neuronal networks represent the only substrate for cognition. These neuronal networks however are embedded into much larger and probably more complex network formed by neuroglia. The latter, althou...
Gliotransmission: Exocytotic release from astrocytes.
We focus on exocytotic mechanism(s) underlying the release of three classes of gliotransmitters: (i) amino acids, such as, glutamate and d-serine; (ii) nucleotides, like adenosine 5'-triphosphate; and (iii) peptides, such as, atrial natriuretic peptide and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. It is be...
New advances in musculoskeletal pain
We present recent advances in preclinical models of osteoarthritis, post-surgical pain and bone fracture pain. The models discussed appear to offer an attractive platform for understanding the factors that drive this pain and the preclinical screening of novel therapies to treat musculoskeletal pain...
Chloride regulation in the pain pathway.
Melzack and Wall's Gate Control Theory of Pain laid the theoretical groundwork for a role of spinal inhibition in endogenous pain control. While the Gate Control Theory was based on the notion that spinal inhibition is dynamically regulated, mechanisms underlying the regulation of inhibition have tu...
Neurogliogenesis in the mature olfactory system: A possible protective role against infection and toxic dust
We hypothesize that continuous neurogenesis in the olfactory system throughout adulthood evolved as a protective mechanism to prevent impairment of the most ancient but vitally important sensory system. In addition, differentiation of a substantial portion of progenitors to glial cells, including ma...
Regulation of ceramide-induced neuronal death: Cell metabolism meets neurodegeneration
The present review explores the role of ceramides in neuronal apoptosis, as well as the recent discovery of the signaling pathways involved in this process placing particular emphasis on the correlation between cellular metabolism and neuronal death. Endogenous levels of ceramides are increased follo...
Predictors of amygdala activation during the processing of emotional stimuli: A meta-analysis of 385 PET and fMRI studies
We conducted a meta-analysis of 385 functional neuroimaging studies of emotional processing, examining the effects of experimental characteristics on the probability of detecting amygdala activity. All emotional stimuli were associated with higher probability of amygdala activity than neutral stimul...
Behavioral characteristics and neurobiological substrates shared by Pavlovian sign-tracking and drug abuse
Drug abuse researchers have noted striking similarities between behaviors elicited by Pavlovian sign-tracking procedures and prominent symptoms of drug abuse. In Pavlovian sign-tracking procedures, repeated paired presentations of a small object (conditioned stimulus, CS) with a reward (unconditione...
Emotional memory function, personality structure and psychopathology: a neural system approach to the identification of vulnerability marker...
We explored the convergence between studies investigating the neural systems engaged in emotional memory facilitation and studies investigating how these systems differ from person to person. Converging evidence highlights the roles of three neural systems (1. Amygdala function and attention, 2. Neu...
Kisspeptin signalling in the brain: Steroid regulation in the rodent and ewe
The Kiss1 gene encodes a family of peptides called kisspeptins, which are the natural ligands for the receptor GPR54. In humans and mice, inactivating mutations of GPR54 results in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, indicating that kisspeptins play a vital role in the regulation of GnRH secretion. In ma...