Trends in Neurosciences
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Touch is a team effort: interplay of submodalities in cutaneous sensibility.
We summarize work that challenges this notion. First, while it is possible to design artificial stimuli that preferentially excite a single afferent class, most natural stimuli excite all afferents and most tactile percepts are shaped by multiple submodalities. Second, closer inspection of cortical...
Lost after translation: missorting of Tau protein and consequences for Alzheimer disease.
Tau is a microtubule-associated-protein that is sorted into neuronal axons in physiological conditions. In Alzheimer disease (AD) and other tauopathies, Tau sorting mechanisms fail and Tau becomes missorted into the somatodendritic compartment. In AD, aberrant amyloid-β (Aβ) production might trigger...
Synapse rearrangements upon learning: from divergent-sparse connectivity to dedicated sub-circuits.
We review these findings, focusing on how molecular/cellular mechanisms of synapse assembly, strengthening, and elimination might interface with circuit/system mechanisms of learning and memory consolidation. An integrated understanding of these learning-related processes should provide a better bas...
Thinking out of the dish: what to learn about cortical development using pluripotent stem cells.
The development of the cerebral cortex requires the tightly coordinated generation of dozens of neuronal subtypes that will populate specific layers and areas. Recent studies have revealed how pluripotent stem cells (PSC), whether of mouse or human origin, can differentiate into a wide range of cort...
New insights into the therapeutic potential of Girk channels.
We discuss recent advances in our understanding of Girk channel structure, organization in signaling complexes, and plasticity, as well as progress on the development of subunit-selective Girk modulators. These findings offer new hope for the selective manipulation of Girk channels to treat a variet...
Reflections on agranular architecture: predictive coding in the motor cortex.
We consider a 'predictive coding' account of this unique feature based on asymmetries in hierarchical cortical connections. In sensory cortex, layer 4 (the granular layer) is the target of ascending pathways. We theorise that the operation of predictive coding in the motor system (a process termed '...
Nothing tastes as good as skinny feels: the neurobiology of anorexia nervosa.
Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) engage in relentless restrictive eating and often become severely emaciated. Because there are no proven treatments, AN has high rates of relapse, chronicity, and death. Those with AN tend to have childhood temperament and personality traits, such as anxiety, o...
Unique biology of gliomas: challenges and opportunities.
We review studies that illustrate the importance of considering interactions of gliomas with their native brain environment. Such studies suggest that gliomas constitute a neurodegenerative disease caused by the malignant growth of brain support cells. The chosen examples illustrate how targeted res...
Rodent models for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) reflect the spectrum of neural impairments seen during chronic viral infection. Current research efforts focus on improving antiretroviral and adjunctive therapies, defining disease onset and progression, facilitating drug...
The neurobiology of anhedonia and other reward-related deficits.
We review the neural bases of the construct of anhedonia that reflects deficits in hedonic capacity and also closely linked to the constructs of reward valuation, decision-making, anticipation and motivation. The neural circuits subserving these reward-related processes include the ventral striatum,...