Trends in Neurosciences
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A de novo convergence of autism genetics and molecular neuroscience.
We review recent studies and suggest that they have led to a convergence on three functional pathways: (i) chromatin remodeling; (ii) wnt signaling during development; and (iii) synaptic function. These pathways and genes significantly expand the neurobiological targets for study, and suggest a path...
Hippocampal neurogenesis and forgetting.
We develop the hypothesis that ongoing hippocampal neurogenesis represents a decay process that continually clears memories from the hippocampus. As newborn granule cells integrate into established hippocampal circuits, they form new input and output connections over the course of several weeks. Bec...
Emerging role for astroglial networks in information processing: from synapse to behavior.
Astrocytes contribute to neurotransmission through a variety of mechanisms ranging from synapse isolation to active signaling. Astroglial involvement in neurophysiology has been mostly investigated at the single-cell level. However, a unique feature of astrocytes is their high level of intercellular...
Resting brains never rest: computational insights into potential cognitive architectures.
Resting-state networks (RSNs), which have become a main focus in neuroimaging research, can be best simulated by large-scale cortical models in which networks teeter on the edge of instability. In this state, the functional networks are in a low firing stable state while they are continuously pulled...
TNFα in synaptic function: switching gears.
We discuss the evidence in support of synaptic regulation by TNFα and the underlying cellular mechanisms, including control of AMPA receptor trafficking and glutamate release from astrocytes. These findings suggest that increases in TNFα levels (caused by nervous system infection, injury, or disease...
Chemokine CXCL12 in neurodegenerative diseases: an SOS signal for stem cell-based repair.
The dynamic relation between stem cells and their niche governs self-renewal and progenitor cell deployment. The chemokine CXCL12 (C-X-C motif ligand 12) and its signaling receptor CXCR4 (C-X-C motif receptor 4) represent an important pathway that regulates homing and maintenance of stem cells in ne...
Seeing the light: photobehavior in fruit fly larvae.
Understanding how sensory stimuli drive behavior requires a detailed understanding of the molecular and neural nature through which the stimuli are received and processed. The visual system of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster shares marked similarities to that of mammals. Although much focus ha...
Genetic and cognitive windows into circuit mechanisms of psychiatric disease
We advocate a more systematic approach in characterizing a small number of animal models by utilizing unequivocal rare disease mutations and targeted cognitive assessment to identify convergent disease circuits and mechanisms. Based on available data, we discuss the possibility that the temporal dyn...
TiNSSpecial Issue: Neuropsychiatric Disorders
Pattern separation in the hippocampus
We discuss the impact of aging and adult neurogenesis on pattern separation, and also highlight several challenges to linking across species and approaches, and suggest future directions for investigation....