Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B. Physical and Biological Sciences
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Reminiscence of 40-year research on nitrogen metabolism.
We discovered a specific growth factor (hepatocyte growth factor, HGF) in rat platelets. Exceptionally, I also worked on branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine). These amino acids are not efficiently metabolized in the liver, so I had to consider the physiology of extrahepatic ti...
Structures and application of oligosaccharides in human milk.
Comparative study of the oligosaccharide profiles of individual human milk revealed the presence of three different patterns. Four oligosaccharides containing the Fucalpha1-2Gal group were missing in the milk of non-secretor, and three oligosaccharides containing the Fucalpha1-4GlcNAc group were mis...
Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide via zero emissions--an alternative way to a stable global environment. Part 1: examination of th...
The concept of "stabilization" of atmospheric CO(2) concentration is re-examined in connection with climate-change mitigation strategies. A new "zero-emissions stabilization (Z-stabilization)" is proposed, where CO(2) emissions are reduced to zero at some time and thereafter the concentration is dec...
Reminiscence of our research on membrane phospholipids in mammalian cells by using the novel technology.
We succeeded in the first isolation in the world of the three different kinds of mammalian cell mutants defective in the biosynthesis on each of phosphatidylserine (PS), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin (SM) from the parental CHO cells. As the results, we found that during the biosyntheses of PS a...
Subaru studies of the cosmic dawn.
An overview on the current status of the census of the early Universe population is given. Observational surveys of high redshift objects provide direct opportunities to study the early epoch of the Universe. The target population included are Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAE), Lyman Break...
Thrombocytogenesis by megakaryocyte; Interpretation by protoplatelet hypothesis.
Serial transmission electron microscopy of human megakaryocytes (MKs) revealed their polyploidization and gradual maturation through consecutive transition in characteristics of various organelles and others. At the beginning of differentiation, MK with ploidy 32N, e.g., has 16 centrosomes in the ce...
Calpain chronicle--an enzyme family under multidisciplinary characterization.
Calpain is an intracellular Ca2+-dependent cysteine protease (EC 188.8.131.52; Clan CA, family C02) discovered in 1964. It was also called CANP (Ca2+-activated neutral protease) as well as CASF, CDP, KAF, etc. until 1990. Calpains are found in almost all eukaryotes and a few bacteria, but not in archae...
Phase transition in spin systems with various types of fluctuations.
We still find variety of features of ordering processes. In this article, we study effects of various mechanisms which bring large fluctuation in the system, e.g., continuous symmetry of the spin in low dimensions, contradictions among interactions (frustration), randomness of the lattice, quantum f...
Cytotoxic substances from two species of Japanese sea hares: chemistry and bioactivity.
From the sea hares belonging to two genera, Aplysia and Dolabella, a variety of new cytotoxic substances were isolated as minute constituents: their chemical structures were determined and their cytotoxicity was evaluated. Regarding the highly cytotoxic substances, further chemical and biological st...
Exploratory research on bioactive natural products with a focus on biological phenomena.
We have focused on the identification and characterization of natural key compounds that control biologically and physiologically intriguing phenomena. The discovery of new bioactive molecules, facilitated by a deeper understanding of nature, should advance our knowledge of biological processes and...