Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice
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Cardiovascular response to exercise and training in the horse.
The quality of the overall response to exercise in the horse is very similar to that seen in man and laboratory animals; differences are mainly quantitative and persist when relative body weight is taken into account. The apparently greater flow capacity of the equine muscle bed during maximal whole...
The equine metabolic syndrome peripheral Cushing's syndrome.
We have hypothesized that obesity-associated laminitis arises as a consequence of vascular changes and a hypercoagulable state, similar to the development of atherosclerosis in human type 2 diabetes. Several molecular mechanisms that might serve to explain the development of insulin insensitivity as...
Fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balances in three-day, combined-training horses.
Horses competing in 3-day, combined-training events develop a metabolic acidosis that is partially compensated for by a respiratory alkalosis immediately after phases B and D. By the end of phase C and 30 minutes to 2 hours after phase D, the acidosis is resolved by the oxidation of lactate, and a m...
Equine wellness care in ambulatory practice.
Exercise physiology of the older horse.
Surveys indicate that up to 15% of the equine population in the United States is older than 20 years of age, with many of these animals performing various athletic activities well into their 20s. As is the case with their human counterparts, these geriatric equine athletes have the ability to contin...
Examination of the developmental changes that occur in the behavior of foals reveals three major periods that can be characterized by certain types of behavior. Although the beginnings and endings of these periods are not definitive, these periods may be conceptually useful in evaluating a foal's be...
General clinical considerations for anesthesia of the horse.
The peculiarities of the equine species present a number of unique situations that must be addressed when horses are anesthetized. Perhaps the most troublesome situation is related to the horse's size. Though the horse's large lungs are responsible in part for its sustainable athletic ability, they...
The role of scintigraphy in the lameness evaluation.
Bone scanning to help diagnose orthopedic disease has been used in human patients for over two decades. The value of this diagnostic tool has been well established in helping to identify a variety of musculoskeletal conditions. It has only recently been used by veterinarians for more accurate charac...
Nutrition and fuel utilization in the athletic horse.
Substrate depletion and end product accumulation are two important factors in exercise fatigue. Fatigue during long-term exercise results from a depletion of muscle and liver glycogen and coincides with an inability to maintain blood glucose levels. During high intensity exercise, the rapid cataboli...
Nutrition and feeding of the geriatric horse.
Little is known regarding nutrient requirements and feeding of geriatric horses, and more effort should be placed on this area of equine nutrition research. That which is known suggests that some geriatric horses may not have different requirements than other mature horses, whereas others affected b...