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Pulmonary toxicity of inhaled nanoscale and fine zinc oxide particles: mass and surface area as an exposure metric.
We hypothesized that mass could be used as an exposure metric for the toxicity of ZnO NPs. Healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a low, moderate, or high dose of 35 and 250 nm ZnO particles or filtered air. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected to determine lung inflammation, injury and...
The acute toxicity, tissue distribution, and histopathology of inhaled ricin in Sprague Dawley rats and BALB/c mice.
Ricin is a highly toxic ribosome-inactivating protein derived from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). Due to the relative ease of producing ricin, it is characterized as a category B priority pathogen by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The purpose of this study was to...
Exposure assessment of workplaces manufacturing nanosized TiO2 and silver.
With the increased production and widespread use of nanomaterials, human and environmental exposure to nanomaterials is inevitably increasing. Therefore, this study monitored the possible exposure to nanoparticles at workplaces that manufacture nano-TiO(2) and nano-silver. To estimat...
Association of size-resolved number concentrations of particulate matter with cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions and mortali...
We analyzed the association of particle number and PM(2.5) concentrations with mortality and cardiorespiratory hospital admissions in Prague. Number concentrations of submicron particles in the range of 15-487 nm were measured continuously at a central site in 2006. The particle number concentrati...
Metered-dose inhaler efficiency enhancement: a case study and novel design.
The efficiency of the metered-dose inhaler (MDI) is a critical issue in aerosol medicine because it deals with delivering a life-saving medication to patients with various lung diseases. Mouthpiece diameter, air flow rate, and entrance angle are among many parameters that influence the MDI penetrati...
Deposition of combustion aerosols in the human respiratory tract: comparison of theoretical predictions with experimental data considering n...
Total deposition of petrol and diesel combustion aerosols and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particles in the human respiratory tract for nasal breathing conditions was computed for 14 nonsmoking volunteers, considering the specific pulmonary function parameters of each volunteer and the specific...
Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for phosgene (CG).
The Provisional Advisory Level (PAL) protocol was applied to estimate inhalation exposure limits for phosgene (CG). Three levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations of potential drinking water and inha...
Acute airway effects of diacetyl in mice.
Occupational exposures to the butter flavouring agent diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) have caused lung inflammation and severe airflow limitation due to bronchiolitis obliterans. Diacetyl is naturally present in butter, beer, white wine, etc., and its pleasant odour is easily recognized by consumers. How...
Expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant in rat lungs by intratracheal instillation of nickel oxide nanoparticles.
We prevented agglomeration of nickel oxide nanoparticles by ultrasound diffusion and filtration, established an acute exposure model using animals, and examined inflammation and chemokine expression. The mass median diameter of nickel oxide nanoparticle agglomerates suspended in distilled water for...
Effects of ambient air particulate exposure on blood-gas barrier permeability and lung function.
Particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of pulmonary diseases and detrimental outcomes related to the cardiovascular system, including altered vessel functions. This study's objective was too evaluate the effects of ambient particle exposure on the blood-gas permeability, lung fu...