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Virulence-associated trimeric autotransporters of Haemophilus parasuis are antigenic proteins expressed in vivo.
We produced 15 recombinant VtaA passenger domains and looked for the presence of antibodies directed against them in immune sera by immunoblotting. After infection with a subclinical dose of H. parasuis Nagasaki, an IgG mediated antibody response against 6 (VtaA1, 5, 6, 8, 9 and 10) of the 13 VtaA o...
Transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus among white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).
Cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, are an important source of viral transmission to susceptible hosts. Persistent BVDV infections have been identified in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant fre...
Assessment of the immune capacity of mammary epithelial cells: comparison with mammary tissue after challenge with Escherichia coli.
We examined the repertoire and extent of inflammation dependent gene regulation in a bovine mammary epithelial cell (MEC) model, to better understand the contribution of the MEC in the immune defence of the udder. We challenged primary cultures of MEC from cows with heat inactivated Escherichia coli...
Identifying spatio-temporal patterns of transboundary disease spread: examples using avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks.
We first fit a set of hierarchical Bayesian models that quantified changes in the spatio-temporal relative risk for each of the 23 affected counties. We then modeled spatial synchrony in each of the three epidemic phases using non-parametric covariance functions and Thin Plate Spline regression mode...
The impact of seasonal variability in wildlife populations on the predicted spread of foot and mouth disease.
We conducted a series of simulation experiments to determine how seasonal estimates of the spatial distribution of white-tailed deer impact the predicted magnitude and distribution of potential FMD outbreaks. Outbreaks were simulated in a study area comprising two distinct ecoregions in South Texas,...
The relationship between spotted fever group Rickettsiae and ixodid ticks.
Spotted fever group Rickettsiae are predominantly transmitted by ticks. Rickettsiae have developed many strategies to adapt to different environmental conditions, including those within their arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts. The tick-Rickettsiae relationship has been a point of interest for m...
Membrane markers of the immune cells in swine: an update.
Besides their breeding value, swine are increasingly used as biomedical models. As reported in three international swine clusters of differentiation (CD) workshops and in the animal homologue section of the last workshop for the determination of human leukocyte differentiation antigens (HLDA 8), cha...
Involvement of proteases in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus uncoating upon internalization in primary macrophages.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replicates in differentiated macrophages. In macrophages, heparan sulphate glycosaminoglycans mediate the initial PRRSV attachment and the receptor sialoadhesin mediates both PRRSV attachment and internalization into endosomes. Upon a pH dr...
Interactions of Haemophilus parasuis and its LOS with porcine brain microvascular endothelial cells.
We recently showed that H. parasuis adheres to and invades porcine brain microvascular endothelial cells (PBMEC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of H. parasuis lipooligosaccharide (LOS) in the adhesion to PBMEC and to determine if H. parasuis (and/or its LOS) is able to induce apopto...
TSE pathogenesis in cattle and sheep.
We summarize the most recent insights into the pathogenesis of BSE and scrapie starting from the initial uptake of TSE agents and crossing of the gut epithelium. Following replication in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), TSE agents spread to the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gut. Inf...