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Prospective cohort studies of newly marketed medications: using covariate data to inform the design of large-scale studies.
We discuss design and methods for evaluating covariate data to assess the comparability of treatment groups, identify patient subgroups that are not comparable, and decide when to transition to a large-scale comparative study. We demonstrate methods in an example study comparing Cox-2 inhibitors dur...
An organizational schema for epidemiologic causal effects.
We provide an organizational schema that distinguishes causal effects based on six characteristics. We use simple numeric examples to demonstrate the variability across effects and show why specifying the causal effect is necessary for an accurate intervention interpretation even under the simplest...
Commentary: Selection Bias as an Explanation for the Obesity Paradox: Just Because It's Possible Doesn't Mean It's Plausible.
Estimating the per-exposure effect of infectious disease interventions.
We build upon work by Halloran and Struchiner (Epidemiology. 1995;6:142-151) to develop a formal definition of the per-exposure effect and discuss conditions necessary for its unbiased estimation. With greater care paid to the parameterization of transmission models, their results can be better unde...
Arsenic, tobacco smoke, and occupation: associations of multiple agents with lung and bladder cancer.
We performed a case-control study of multiple chemical exposures in 538 lung and bladder cancer cases and 640 controls in northern Chile, an area with formerly high drinking water arsenic concentrations. Detailed information was collected on lifetime arsenic exposure, smoking, secondhand smoke, and...
Early growth patterns in children with autism.
We compared growth trajectories in autism spectrum disorder cases and noncases using Reed first-order models. Subjects included 376 children (310 boys and 66 girls) with specialist-confirmed autism spectrum disorder. In boys with autism spectrum disorder, mean head growth was similar to that of othe...
Early parental death and risk of hospitalization for affective disorder in adulthood.
We investigated the association between early parental loss and risk of hospitalization for an affective disorder in adulthood. Our nationwide register-based cohort study comprises 1,225,660 people born in Denmark in 1970-1990, of whom 138,893 experienced the death of a parent before the age of 30 y...
Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age.
We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. We included 6174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive substudy of the Women's Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later,...
Risk factors for falls with use of acid-suppressive drugs.
We investigated whether their use is associated with falls as a possible mechanism for increasing fracture risk. A cohort study with nested case-control analysis and two validation strategies was performed using data from UK patients (aged 40-89 years) included in The Health Improvement Network data...
Confounding of incidence density ratio in case-control studies.