Current Opinion in Nephrology & Hypertension
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Transplanting the highly sensitized patient: trials and tribulations.
Humoral sensitization to antigens of the human leukocyte antigen and ABO systems remains one of the largest barriers to further expansion in renal transplantation. This barrier translates into prolonged waiting time and a greater likelihood of death. The number of highly sensitized patients on the r...
CKD impairs barrier function and alters microbial flora of the intestine: a major link to inflammation and uremic toxicity.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation which contribute to progression of kidney disease and its numerous complications. Until recently, little attention had been paid to the role of the intestine and its microbial flora in the pathogenesis of CKD-associate...
Challenges in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to nephrolithiasis.
The incidence of renal stones is rising along with the costs and morbidity associated with this condition. With careful evaluation and management, the great majority of recurrent stones are preventable. The cornerstone of this evaluation remains the 24-h urine collection. This review details the phy...
Managing patients with a failed kidney transplant: how can we do better?
Patients with a failed kidney transplant represent a unique chronic kidney disease (CKD) population that is increasing in number, and that is at high risk of morbidity and mortality because of a prolonged history of CKD that may be sub-optimally managed, and exposure to immunosuppressant medications...
HIV-associated nephropathy: pathogenesis.
We provide a summary of the current state of knowledge about the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of HIVAN. Two variants in the ApoL1 gene have been identified as the susceptibility alleles that account for a majority of the increased risk of FSGS and nondiabetic end-stage renal disease in bl...
Dysregulated mineral metabolism in children with chronic kidney disease.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) begins early in the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is the most common cause of death even in children with CKD. Mechanisms of CVD development are poorly understood. This review focuses on the role of dysregulated homeostasis of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), p...
Critical appraisal of randomized controlled trials of anemia correction in patients with renal failure.
Recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported risks and benefits in the correction of anemia using erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) in patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this review is to critically appraise the RCTs m...
Drug interactions in transplant patients: what everyone should know.
Adverse events due to drug-drug interactions remain a challenge in the postsurgical care of transplant recipients. A combination of potent and selective immunosuppressive drugs, which have a narrow therapeutic index, with medications for the treatment of comorbidities such as dyslipidemia, infection...