Foot and Ankle Clinics
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What is the role and limit of calcaneal osteotomy in the cavovarus foot?
Calcaneal osteotomy is a commonly used tool in cavovarus foot reconstructions. Understanding the indications and limitations of such an osteotomy is critical to success in reconstruction. We present a comprehensive review of surgical calcaneal osteotomy techniques and the currently available state o...
Flexible cavovarus foot in children and adolescents.
Flexible cavovarus feet in children and adolescents can be challenging. A careful history and physical examination are paramount for determining the best treatment strategy and a multitude of options are available. Specific treatment strategies should be individualized and any bony correction must b...
Management of syndesmosis injuries in the elite athlete.
This article reviews the basics and evidence base thus far on syndesmosis injuries, focusing on its management in the elite sporting population. A syndesmosis injury or "high ankle sprain" is a significant injury, especially in the elite athlete. Among all ankle sprains, the syndesmotic injury is mo...
Salvage arthrodesis after failed ankle replacement: surgical decision making.
Fusion remains the primary technique to salvage the failed total ankle. Fusions present a daunting challenge because of the large bone defect left by the explanted arthroplasty components and the difficulty obtaining stable fixation. Limiting the fusion to the tibiotalar joint preserves the essentia...
Lesser toes proximal interphalangeal joint fusion in rigid claw toes.
Treatment of rigid claw toe is still subject to discussion and evolution. Arthrodesis or arthroplasty of the PIPJ is apparently the most reliable procedure. K wire seems be the most reliable way to solve this clinical issue, but different implants specifically created to treat PIPJ deformities are b...
Tarsal coalitions in the adult population: does treatment differ from the adolescent?
Our treatment algorithm focuses first on a trial of nonoperative treatment of at least 3 months regardless of coalition location. After failed nonoperative treatment, calcaneonavicular coalitions are in most cases treated with excision and interpositional fat graft. For talocalcaneal coalitions, res...
Examination of the varus ankle, foot, and tibia.
A detailed clinical examination is an essential component in the assessment of the cavus foot. A complex interaction of pathologic conditions can only be assessed completely with physical examination. Imaging such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may confoun...
Total ankle replacement in ankle arthritis with varus talar deformity: pathophysiology, evaluation, and management principles.
Varus malalignment of the ankle may be a misleading term. The isolated frontal plane deformity has been shown to be multiplanar in nature. Identifying this dominant feature of the condition and applying appropriate surgical principles to allow for complete correction of the deformity...
Peripheral Nerve Entrapments of the Lower Leg, Ankle, and Foot
We discuss in detail the anatomy, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment options for peripheral nerve entrapments of the lower extremity involving the sural, saphenous and common, superficial, and deep peroneal nerves....
Use of Tourniquets and Their Effects on Limb Function in the Modern Combat Environment
Tourniquets have been called powerful lifesaving devices by some authors, whereas others say they cause more harm than good. Given recent emergency tourniquet developments in scientific design of devices, widespread user training, modern doctrine based on evidence, and thorough fielding to user...