Toxicological Sciences

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  1. Skin sensitizers induce antioxidant response element dependent genes: application to the in vitro testing of the sensitization potential of chemicals.

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):110 (2008) PMID 17932397

    Tests for skin sensitization are required prior to the market launch of new cosmetic ingredients and in vitro tests are needed to replace the current animal tests. Protein reactivity is the common feature of skin sensitizers and it is a crucial question whether a cellular in vitro assay can dete...
  2. Predicting maternal rat and pup exposures: how different are they?

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):15 (2008) PMID 18024990

    Risk and safety assessments for early life exposures to environmental chemicals or pharmaceuticals based on cross-species extrapolation would greatly benefit from information on chemical dosimetry in the young. Although relevant toxicity studies involve exposures during multiple life stages, the...
  3. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor affects distinct tissue compartments during ontogeny of the immune system.

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):160 (2008) PMID 18024991 PMCID PMC2919342

    There is growing evidence that prenatal and early postnatal environmental factors influence the development and programming of the immune system, causing long-lasting negative health consequences. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important modulator of the development and function of th...
  4. Minimal role of hepatic transporters in the hepatoprotection against LCA-induced intrahepatic cholestasis.

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):196 (2008) PMID 18032408

    The multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrps) are a family of adenosine triphosphate-dependent transporters that facilitate the movement of various compounds, including bile acids, out of hepatocytes. The current study was conducted to determine whether induction of these transporters alte...
  5. Mechanisms of interaction of endocrine-disrupting chemicals with glutamate-evoked secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):33 (2008) PMID 18032409

    In previous studies, we detected a dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) derivative in the serum of children with sexual precocity after migration from developing countries. Recently, we reported that DDT stimulated pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and sexual maturation ...
  6. Combined inhaled diesel exhaust particles and allergen exposure alter methylation of T helper genes and IgE production in vivo.

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):76 (2008) PMID 18042818 PMCID PMC2268643

    Changes in methylation of CpG sites at the interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-gamma promoters are associated with T helper (Th) 2 polarization in vitro. No previous studies have examined whether air pollution or allergen exposure alters methylation of these two genes in vivo. We hypothesize...
  7. PPARalpha and PPARbeta are differentially affected by ethanol and the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):120 (2008) PMID 18003597

    The activity and/or the level of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in liver and oligodendrocytes are regulated by ethanol. Despite the association between ethanol consumption and breast cancer risk, and the increasing evidence for an involvement of PPARs in some cancers, th...
  8. Changes in reproductive courtship behaviors of adult American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant levels of the polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture, DE-71.

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):171 (2008) PMID 18065774

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are increasing in biota. Here, captive adult American kestrels were exposed daily by diet to safflower oil (controls), or one of two levels of a pentaBDE technical formulation, DE-71 (0.3 or 1.6 ppm), for approximately 75 days, commencing 21 days before bre...
  9. Nonanimal alternatives for skin sensitization: a step forward?

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):1 (2008) PMID 18256044

  10. Apoptosis of cultured astrocytes induced by the copper and neocuproine complex through oxidative stress and JNK activation.

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):138 (2008) PMID 18056745

    Astrocytes play a critical neurotrophic and neuroprotective role in the brain, and improper function of these cells may contribute to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. Because astrocytes are known to be enriched with Cu chaperone proteins, it is important to understand the factors that ma...
  11. Differences in allergenic potential of food extracts following oral exposure in mice reflect differences in digestibility: potential approaches to safety assessment.

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):100 (2008) PMID 18033772

    An animal model for food allergy is needed to assess genetically modified food crops for potential allergenicity. The ideal model must produce allergic antibody (IgE) to proteins differentially according to known allergenicity before being used to accurately identify potential allergens among no...
  12. 4-tert-octylphenol regulates the differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells into osteoblast and adipocyte lineages.

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):82 (2008) PMID 18065773

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) affects the differentiation of multipotent C3H10T1/2 cells, a cell line established from mouse embryonic connective tissue, into osteoblast and adipocyte lineages. Confluent C3H10T1/2 cells were incubated for 7 days with (O...
  13. Effects and interactions in an environmentally relevant mixture of pharmaceuticals.

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):129 (2008) PMID 18048368

    With the goal of assessing the environmental risk of pharmaceuticals, we have previously observed that a mixture of 13 different drugs at environmentally relevant concentrations had adverse consequences on human and zebra fish cells in vitro. Here we aimed to identify both main and interaction e...
  14. Statin-induced heme oxygenase-1 increases NF-kappaB activation and oxygen radical production in cultured neuronal cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide.

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):150 (2008) PMID 18073186

    With potentially neuroprotective properties, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been suggested to be the main mediator of cholesterol-independent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions of statins. However, we had demonstrated that simvastatin-induced HO-1 increased apoptosis of Neuro 2A cells in glu...
  15. Comparative toxicogenomic examination of the hepatic effects of PCB126 and TCDD in immature, ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice.

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):61 (2008) PMID 18042819

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent environmental pollutants that elicit a wide range of effects in humans and wildlife, mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) is the most potent congener with relative effect potencies ranging from 0.0026 to 0.85...
  16. Gene expression profiles in rainbow trout, Onchorynchus mykiss, exposed to a simple chemical mixture.

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):42 (2008) PMID 18084045

    Among proposed uses for microarrays in environmental toxiciology is the identification of key contributors to toxicity within a mixture. However, it remains uncertain whether the transcriptomic profiles resulting from exposure to a mixture have patterns of altered gene expression that contain id...
  17. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor targets pathways extrinsic to bone marrow cells to enhance neutrophil recruitment during influenza virus infection.

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):89 (2008) PMID 18007012 PMCID PMC2919339

    There is growing evidence that neutrophils influence host resistance during influenza virus infection; however, factors that regulate neutrophil migration to the lung during viral infection are unclear. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by the pollutant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo...
  18. Modeling and assaying dioxin-like biological effects for both dioxin-like and certain non-dioxin-like compounds.

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):187 (2008) PMID 18065775

    13C NMR data have been correlated to Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs) of the 29 PCDDs, PCDFs, or PCBs for which non-zero TEFs have been defined. Such correlations are called quantitative spectrometric data-activity relationship (QSDAR) models. An improved QSDAR model predicted TEFs of 0.037 and ...
  19. Perfluoroalkyl acids and related chemistries--toxicokinetics and modes of action.

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):3 (2008) PMID 18003598

    The perfluoroalkyl acid salts (both carboxylates and sulfonates, hereafter designated as PFAAs) and their derivatives are important chemicals that have numerous consumer and industrial applications. However, recent discoveries that some of these compounds have global distribution, environmental ...
  20. Mitochondrial modulation of phosphine toxicity and resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Toxicological Sciences 102(1):179 (2008) PMID 17998274

    Phosphine is a fumigant used to protect stored commodities from infestation by pest insects, though high-level phosphine resistance in many insect species threatens the continued use of the fumigant. The mechanisms of toxicity and resistance are not clearly understood. In this study, the model o...