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Plasma membrane potentials gate the ion channel conductance that controls external signal-induced neuronal functions. We found that diffusible guidance molecules caused membrane potential shifts that resulted in repulsion or attraction of Xenopus laevis spinal neuron growth cones. The repellents...
NMDA receptors are necessary for both synaptic potentiation and depression, but the precise location of these receptors has not been established. By loading MK-801 into pre- or postsynaptic neurons during paired recordings of synaptically connected layer 4 and layer 2/3 neurons in mouse barrel c...
Cocaine is a widely abused substance with psychostimulant effects that are attributed to inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT). We present molecular models for DAT binding of cocaine and cocaine analogs constructed from the high-resolution structure of the bacterial transporter homolog Le...
We found that increasing ghrelin levels, through subcutaneous injections or calorie restriction, produced anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like responses in the elevated plus maze and forced swim test. Moreover, chronic social defeat stress, a rodent model of depression, persistently increased ghr...
Most seizures stop spontaneously; however, the molecular mechanisms that terminate seizures remain unknown. Observations that seizures reduced brain pH and that acidosis inhibited seizures indicate that acidosis halts epileptic activity. Because acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is exquisitel...
The somatic voltage clamp technique has revolutionized understanding of synaptic physiology and the excitability of neurons. Although computer simulations have indicated that the somatic voltage clamp poorly controls voltage in the dendritic tree of neurons, where the majority of synaptic contac...
It is unclear how the complex spatiotemporal organization of ongoing cortical neuronal activity recorded in anesthetized animals relates to the awake animal. We therefore used two-photon population calcium imaging in awake and subsequently anesthetized rats to follow action potential firing in p...
Synaptic plasticity underlies the adaptability of the mammalian brain, but has been difficult to study in living animals. Here we imaged the synapses between pre- and postganglionic neurons in the mouse submandibular ganglion in vivo, focusing on the mechanisms that maintain and regulate neurotr...