Nature Neuroscience

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  1. Membrane potential shifts caused by diffusible guidance signals direct growth-cone turning.

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):762 (2008) PMID 18536712

    Plasma membrane potentials gate the ion channel conductance that controls external signal-induced neuronal functions. We found that diffusible guidance molecules caused membrane potential shifts that resulted in repulsion or attraction of Xenopus laevis spinal neuron growth cones. The repellents...
  2. Spike timing-dependent long-term depression requires presynaptic NMDA receptors.

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):744 (2008) PMID 18516036

    NMDA receptors are necessary for both synaptic potentiation and depression, but the precise location of these receptors has not been established. By loading MK-801 into pre- or postsynaptic neurons during paired recordings of synaptically connected layer 4 and layer 2/3 neurons in mouse barrel c...
  3. The binding sites for cocaine and dopamine in the dopamine transporter overlap.

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):780 (2008) PMID 18568020 PMCID PMC2692229

    Cocaine is a widely abused substance with psychostimulant effects that are attributed to inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT). We present molecular models for DAT binding of cocaine and cocaine analogs constructed from the high-resolution structure of the bacterial transporter homolog Le...
  4. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin defends against depressive symptoms of chronic stress.

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):752 (2008) PMID 18552842 PMCID PMC2765052

    We found that increasing ghrelin levels, through subcutaneous injections or calorie restriction, produced anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like responses in the elevated plus maze and forced swim test. Moreover, chronic social defeat stress, a rodent model of depression, persistently increased ghr...
  5. The shape of faces (to come).

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):739 (2008) PMID 18575470

  6. Awake and asleep.

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):740 (2008) PMID 18575471

  7. Seizure termination by acidosis depends on ASIC1a.

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):816 (2008) PMID 18536711 PMCID PMC2553357

    Most seizures stop spontaneously; however, the molecular mechanisms that terminate seizures remain unknown. Observations that seizures reduced brain pH and that acidosis inhibited seizures indicate that acidosis halts epileptic activity. Because acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is exquisitel...
  8. Direct measurement of somatic voltage clamp errors in central neurons.

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):790 (2008) PMID 18552844

    The somatic voltage clamp technique has revolutionized understanding of synaptic physiology and the excitability of neurons. Although computer simulations have indicated that the somatic voltage clamp poorly controls voltage in the dendritic tree of neurons, where the majority of synaptic contac...
  9. Population imaging of ongoing neuronal activity in the visual cortex of awake rats.

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):749 (2008) PMID 18552841

    It is unclear how the complex spatiotemporal organization of ongoing cortical neuronal activity recorded in anesthetized animals relates to the awake animal. We therefore used two-photon population calcium imaging in awake and subsequently anesthetized rats to follow action potential firing in p...
  10. Rapid and modifiable neurotransmitter receptor dynamics at a neuronal synapse in vivo.

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):807 (2008) PMID 18568021 PMCID PMC2700019

    Synaptic plasticity underlies the adaptability of the mammalian brain, but has been difficult to study in living animals. Here we imaged the synapses between pre- and postganglionic neurons in the mouse submandibular ganglion in vivo, focusing on the mechanisms that maintain and regulate neurotr...
  11. Absolute requirement of GDNF for adult catecholaminergic neuron survival.

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):755 (2008) PMID 18536709

    GDNF is a potent neurotrophic factor that protects catecholaminergic neurons from toxic damage and induces fiber outgrowth. However, the actual role of endogenous GDNF in the normal adult brain is unknown, even though GDNF-based therapies are considered promising for neurodegenerative disorders....
  12. Pungent agents from Szechuan peppers excite sensory neurons by inhibiting two-pore potassium channels.

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):772 (2008) PMID 18568022 PMCID PMC3072296

    In traditional folk medicine, Xanthoxylum plants are referred to as 'toothache trees' because their anesthetic or counter-irritant properties render them useful in the treatment of pain. Psychophysical studies have identified hydroxy-alpha-sanshool as the compound most responsible for the unique...
  13. Out of control in the dendrites.

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):733 (2008) PMID 18575467

  14. Cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity: a key to addiction?

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):737 (2008) PMID 18575469

  15. Transgenic primate models inch forward.
    Author(s) unavailable

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):729 (2008) PMID 18575465

  16. Critical role of TRPC6 channels in the formation of excitatory synapses.

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):741 (2008) PMID 18516035

    The transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels are Ca2+-permeable, nonselective cation channels with different biological functions, but their roles in brain are largely unknown. Here we report that TRPC6 was localized to excitatory synapses and promoted their formation via a CaMKIV-...
  17. Expressing fear enhances sensory acquisition.

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):843 (2008) PMID 18552843

    It has been proposed that facial expression production originates in sensory regulation. Here we demonstrate that facial expressions of fear are configured to enhance sensory acquisition. A statistical model of expression appearance revealed that fear and disgust expressions have opposite shape ...
  18. Outer hair cell somatic, not hair bundle, motility is the basis of the cochlear amplifier.

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):746 (2008) PMID 18516034

    Sensitivity, dynamic range and frequency tuning of the cochlea are attributed to amplification involving outer hair cell stereocilia and/or somatic motility. We measured acoustically and electrically elicited basilar membrane displacements from the cochleae of wild-type and Tecta(DeltaENT/DeltaE...
  19. A disproportionate role for the fornix and mammillary bodies in recall versus recognition memory.

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):834 (2008) PMID 18552840

    Uncovering the functional relationship between temporal lobe amnesia and diencephalic amnesia depends on determining the role of the fornix, the major interlinking fiber tract. In this study relating fornix volume with memory, we made magnetic resonance imaging-based volume estimates of 13 brain...
  20. Behavior-dependent short-term assembly dynamics in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Nature Neuroscience 11(7):823 (2008) PMID 18516033 PMCID PMC2562676

    Although short-term plasticity is believed to play a fundamental role in cortical computation, empirical evidence bearing on its role during behavior is scarce. Here we looked for the signature of short-term plasticity in the fine-timescale spiking relationships of a simultaneously recorded popu...