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The role of pattern recognition receptors in intestinal inflammation.
Recognition of microorganisms by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) is the primary component of innate immunity that is responsible for the maintenance of host-microbial interactions in intestinal mucosa. Dysregulation in host-commensal interactions has been implicated as the central pathogenesis...
A bacterial glycan core linked to surface (S)-layer proteins modulates host immunity through Th17 suppression.
We show that the terminal motif of this glycan core acts to modulate dendritic cell effector functions to suppress T-helper (Th)17 responses. In contrast to the wild-type bacterial strain, infection with a mutant strain lacking the complete S-layer glycan core induced robust Th17 and reduced periodo...
Negative regulation of human mononuclear phagocyte function.
At mucosal surfaces, phagocytes such as macrophages coexist with microbial communities; highly controlled regulation of these interactions is essential for immune homeostasis. Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are critical in recognizing and responding to microbial products, and they are subject...
Ancient T-independence of mucosal IgX/A: gut microbiota unaffected by larval thymectomy in Xenopus laevis.
We have employed larval thymectomy in Xenopus to study the gut microbiota with and without the influence of T lymphocytes. Pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes was used to assess the relative abundance of bacterial groups present in the stomach, small and large intestine. Clostridiaceae was the...
NLRC4: panic button for the calm intestinal phagocyte.
Influenza A facilitates sensitization to house dust mite in infant mice leading to an asthma phenotype in adulthood.
We investigated whether an influenza A infection in early life alters immune responses to house dust mite (HDM) and promotes an asthmatic phenotype later in life. Neonatal (8-day-old) mice were infected with influenza virus and 7 days later, exposed to HDM for 3 weeks. Unlike adults, neonatal mice e...
Langerin+ dendritic cells are responsible for LPS-induced reactivation of allergen-specific Th2 responses in postasthmatic mice.
We have shown that airway LPS exposure was sufficient to induce airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and eosinophil recruitment in mice that had previously experienced an acute episode of allergic asthma. LPS-induced disease reactivation depended on the activation of allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells by a su...
Understanding eosinophilic esophagitis: the cellular and molecular mechanisms of an emerging disease.
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has been increasingly recognized as a unique clinicopathological entity over the past two decades. In this short time, the mechanisms of a complex disease have begun to emerge. Patient studies suggest that EoE is an immunologic disease related to atopy....
Response to "The "gatekeeper" hypothesis challenged in a human cervico-vaginal tissue model for HIV-1 transmission".
Regulation of inducible BALT formation and contribution to immunity and pathology.