Current Protocols in Toxicology
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Methods to measure gastric mucosal lesions in the rat.
Using chemotherapeutic drugs to trigger hematopoietic stem cell activation and determine hematological toxicity.
Assessment of enteral bacteria.
The disruption of intestinal barrier leads to the penetration of noxious luminal compounds into the gut wall, causing further damage. This unit describes the assessment of enteric bacteria translocation into the intestinal wall of rats, an established method for the evaluation of bow...
Overview of alternative methodologies in toxicology.
In vitro toxicology generally refers to the study of toxicological phenomena in non-whole-animal models. This broader connotation includes studies utilizing isolated organs, tissue slices, explants cultures, and isolated primary cells, as well as cell lines and subcellular fractions (e.g., microsome...
Toxicity testing in chemical safety evaluation.
The modern era of chemistry has resulted in dramatic improvements in the overall human condition. In addition to new pharmaceuticals, modern chemistry has brought with it enormous health and social benefits Introduction of chemistry-based technologies, however, has also been clearly associated with...
Biotransformation studies using rat proximal tubule cells.
The proximal tubule is the main target for nephrotoxic substances due to its specific properties, including efficient drug transport and biotransformation potential. The availability of a pure population of proximal tubule cells (PT cells) as a model to study a range of biological, pharmacological,...
Measurement of hepatobiliary transport.
A major hepatic function involves the removal of xenobiotics from portal blood and their subsequent storage, metabolism, and excretion into bile, or delivery of various products back into the bloodstream. Transport across the liver cell basolateral (or sinusoidal) plasma membrane is a key step in th...
Purification and characterization of heme oxygenase.
High-yield expression and purification of human heme oxygenase isozyme 1 provided the breakthrough in characterizing the protein from mechanistic and structural standpoints. This unit provides a protocol for high-level expression and subsequent purification of HO-1. The commentary includes a discuss...
Measurement of bioavailability: measuring absorption through skin in vivo in rats and humans.
Absorption through the skin is a route of exposure to a wide variety of therapeutic and/or environmental compounds. In vivo assays are advantageous in that they retain intact epidermal and dermal structures and thus reflect a more normal situation. The test compound is applied to the skin in a prote...
Measurement of disposition half-life, clearance, and residence times.
This unit provides an overview of the principles underlying the elimination process. Experimental design issues, methods of data analysis, and complications that may be encountered are discussed. A complete worked example is provided to exemplify the methods of analysis that are available.