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Techniques for quantifying phytoplankton biodiversity.
We review recent major advances in the technologies that have enabled deeper characterization of the biodiversity of phytoplankton. In particular, high-throughput sequencing of single loci/genes, genomes, and communities (metagenomics) has revealed exceptional phylogenetic and genomic diversity whos...
Understanding continental margin biodiversity: a new imperative.
We are just now getting to know....
There and back again: a review of residency and return migrations in sharks, with implications for population structure and management.
The overexploitation of sharks has become a global environmental issue in need of a comprehensive and multifaceted management response. Tracking studies are beginning to elucidate how shark movements shape the internal dynamics and structure of populations, which determine the most appropriate scale...
The physics of broadcast spawning in benthic invertebrates.
We present a holistic overview of the impact of instantaneous flow processes on fertilization across a range of scales. At large scales, transport and stirring by the flow control the distribution of gametes. Although mean dilution of gametes by turbulence is deleterious to fertilization, a variety...
Geologist at sea: aspects of ocean history.
Ocean history is largely read from deep-sea sediments, using microscopic fossils, notably foraminifers. Ice age fluctuations in the ocean's sediments provided for a new geologic understanding of climate change. The discovery of rapid decay of ice masses at the end of glacial periods was especially i...
The physiology of global change: linking patterns to mechanisms.
I address the following questions: What types of physiological limitations can alter species' distributions and, in cases of extreme stress, cause extinctions? Which species are most threatened by these physiological challenges--and why? How do contents of genomes establish capacities to respond to...
Jellyfish and ctenophore blooms coincide with human proliferations and environmental perturbations.
I review the time lines of human population growth and their effects on the coastal environment. I explore evidence suggesting that human activities--specifically, seafood harvest, eutrophication, hard substrate additions, transport ofnonindigenous species, aquaculture, and climate change--may benef...
Hypoxia, nitrogen, and fisheries: integrating effects across local and global landscapes.
We present an analysis of hypoxia, nitrogen loadings, and fisheries landings in 30 estuaries and semien-closed seas worldwide. Our results suggest that hypoxia does not typically reduce systemwide fisheries landings below what would be predicted from nitrogen loadings, except where raw sewage is rel...
The oligotrophic ocean is autotrophic.
We find that (a) no bias in in situ oxygen-based production estimates would give false-positive (net autotrophy) rates, (b) observed (13)C enrichment of surface water dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) can be explained only by positive NCP (net autotrophy), (c) lateral and vertical inputs of organic c...
The emerging field of marine ecomechanics provides an explicit physical framework for exploring interactions among marine organisms and between these organisms and their environments. It exhibits particular utility through its construction of predictive, mechanistic models, a number of which address...