Marine Science

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  1. Contemporary sediment-transport processes in submarine canyons.

    Marine Science 6:53 (2014) PMID 23937169

    Submarine canyons are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow- to deep-sea regions. However, the exact mechanisms involved in sediment transfer within submarine canyons are still a subject of investigation. Several studies have provide...
  2. Antagonistic coevolution of marine planktonic viruses and their hosts.

    Marine Science 6:393 (2014) PMID 23987913

    The potential for antagonistic coevolution between marine viruses and their (primarily bacterial) hosts is well documented, but our understanding of the consequences of this rapid evolution is in its infancy. Acquisition of resistance against co-occurring viruses and the subsequent evolution of ...
  3. Benthic exchange and biogeochemical cycling in permeable sediments.

    Marine Science 6:23 (2014) PMID 23987916

    The sandy sediments that blanket the inner shelf are situated in a zone where nutrient input from land and strong mixing produce maximum primary production and tight coupling between water column and sedimentary processes. The high permeability of the shelf sands renders them susceptible to pres...
  4. Microbially mediated transformations of phosphorus in the sea: new views of an old cycle.

    Marine Science 6:279 (2014) PMID 24405427

    Phosphorus (P) is a required element for life. Its various chemical forms are found throughout the lithosphere and hydrosphere, where they are acted on by numerous abiotic and biotic processes collectively referred to as the P cycle. In the sea, microorganisms are primarily responsible for P ass...
  5. Shedding light on the sea: André Morel's legacy to optical oceanography.

    Marine Science 6:1 (2014) PMID 24015899

    André Morel (1933-2012) was a prominent pioneer of modern optical oceanography, enabling significant advances in this field. Through his forward thinking and research over more than 40 years, he made key contributions that this field needed to grow and to reach its current status. This article f...
  6. Resurrecting the ecological underpinnings of ocean plankton blooms.

    Marine Science 6:167 (2014) PMID 24079309

    Nutrient and light conditions control phytoplankton division rates in the surface ocean and, it is commonly believed, dictate when and where high concentrations, or blooms, of plankton occur. Yet after a century of investigation, rates of phytoplankton biomass accumulation show no correlation wi...
  7. The role of B vitamins in marine biogeochemistry.

    Marine Science 6:339 (2014) PMID 24050603

    The soluble B vitamins (B1, B7, and B12) have long been recognized as playing a central metabolic role in marine phytoplankton and bacteria; however, the importance of these organic external metabolites in marine ecology has been largely disregarded, as most research has focused on inorganic nut...
  8. Carbon cycling and storage in mangrove forests.

    Marine Science 6:195 (2014) PMID 24405426

    Mangroves are ecologically and economically important forests of the tropics. They are highly productive ecosystems with rates of primary production equal to those of tropical humid evergreen forests and coral reefs. Although mangroves occupy only 0.5% of the global coastal area, they contribute...
  9. Sea ice ecosystems.

    Marine Science 6:439 (2014) PMID 24015900

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditio...
  10. The oceanography and ecology of the Ross Sea.

    Marine Science 6:469 (2014) PMID 23987914

    The continental shelf of the Ross Sea exhibits substantial variations in physical forcing, ice cover, and biological processes on a variety of time and space scales. Its circulation is characterized by advective inputs from the east and exchanges with off-shelf regions via the troughs along the ...
  11. Ocean acidification in the coastal zone from an organism's perspective: multiple system parameters, frequency domains, and habitats.

    Marine Science 6:221 (2014) PMID 23987912

    Multiple natural and anthropogenic processes alter the carbonate chemistry of the coastal zone in ways that either exacerbate or mitigate ocean acidification effects. Freshwater inputs and multiple acid-base reactions change carbonate chemistry conditions, sometimes synergistically. The shallow ...
  12. Sounds in the ocean at 1-100 Hz.

    Marine Science 6:117 (2014) PMID 23876176

    Very-low-frequency sounds between 1 and 100 Hz propagate large distances in the ocean sound channel. Weather conditions, earthquakes, marine mammals, and anthropogenic activities influence sound levels in this band. Weather-related sounds result from interactions between waves, bubbles entrained...
  13. Turbulence in the upper-ocean mixed layer.

    Marine Science 6:101 (2014) PMID 23909456

    Nearly all operational models of upper-ocean mixing assume that the turbulence responsible for this mixing is driven by the atmospheric fluxes of momentum, heat, and moisture and the shear imposed by the ocean circulation. This idealization is supported by historical measurements of dissipation ...
  14. El Niño physics and El Niño predictability.

    Marine Science 6:79 (2014) PMID 24405425

    Much of the year-to-year climate variability on the Earth is associated with El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This variability is generated primarily by a coupled ocean-atmosphere instability near the eastern edge of the western equatorial Pacific warm pool. Here, I discuss the physi...
  15. Tropical marginal seas: priority regions for managing marine biodiversity and ecosystem function.

    Marine Science 6:415 (2014) PMID 24128091

    Tropical marginal seas (TMSs) are natural subregions of tropical oceans containing biodiverse ecosystems with conspicuous, valued, and vulnerable biodiversity assets. They are focal points for global marine conservation because they occur in regions where human populations are rapidly expanding....
  16. Climate change influences on marine infectious diseases: implications for management and society.

    Marine Science 6:249 (2014) PMID 23808894

    Infectious diseases are common in marine environments, but the effects of a changing climate on marine pathogens are not well understood. Here we review current knowledge about how the climate drives host-pathogen interactions and infectious disease outbreaks. Climate-related impacts on marine d...
  17. Hide and seek in the open sea: pelagic camouflage and visual countermeasures.

    Marine Science 6:369 (2014) PMID 23987915

    Camouflage is exceptionally challenging in pelagic environments because of their featureless nature. Thus, it is perhaps no surprise that pelagic species have evolved highly sophisticated cryptic strategies, three of which-transparency, mirrors, and counter illumination-are rare or absent in oth...
  18. The physics of broadcast spawning in benthic invertebrates.

    Marine Science 6:141 (2014) PMID 23957600

    Most benthic invertebrates broadcast their gametes into the sea, whereupon successful fertilization relies on the complex interaction between the physics of the surrounding fluid flow and the biological properties and behavior of eggs and sperm. We present a holistic overview of the impact of in...
  19. Remote sensing of the nearshore.

    Marine Science 5:95 (2013) PMID 22809186

    The shallow waters of the nearshore ocean are popular, dynamic, and often hostile. Prediction in this domain is usually limited less by our understanding of the physics or by the power of our models than by the availability of input data, such as bathymetry and wave conditions. It is a challenge...
  20. Reflections about chance in my career, and on the top-down regulated world.

    Marine Science 5:1 (2013) PMID 22881352

    Paraphrasing Pasteur, in scientific work Fortuna favors only the prepared mind. This is illustrated by my career after an incidental escape from the former German East Prussia just ahead of the Red Army, my switch in Kiel from zoology to oceanography, and my learning of a vacancy in Seattle. Tre...