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Articles on Tars
Relationship between constituent labelling and reporting of tar yields among smokers in four countries.
The temporal relationship between advertising and sales of low-tar cigarettes.
Increases in print advertising of 20 of the most popular low-tar cigarette brands were followed by increases in sales for these cigarettes. Despite increases in the advertising of exclusively low-tar brands in the mid-1970s and early 1980s, the sales of these brands never matched the sales of the lo...
The consequences of the unregulated cigarette.
This article considers changes in cigarette design in relation to the concept of "dose", drawing attention to the observation that there is not one smoking related epidemic of lung cancer, but at least two. Squamous carcinoma is declining in parallel with smoking prevalence while adenocarcinoma is i...
Cotinine concentration in smokers from different countries: relationship with amount smoked and cigarette type.
This four-country study examined salivary cotinine as a marker for nicotine intake and addiction among smokers in relation to numbers and types of cigarettes smoked. Smoking characteristics of cigarette smokers in Brazil, China, Mexico, and Poland were identified using a standard questionnaire. Coti...
Taking ad-Vantage of lax advertising regulation in the USA and Canada: Reassuring and distracting health-concerned smokers
We explored the evolution from cigarette product attributes to psychosocial needs in advertising campaigns for low-tar cigarettes. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and print advertising images indicated that low-tar brands targeted smokers who were concerned about their healt...
Experimental study of environmental tobacco smoke particles under actual indoor environment
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major source of human exposure to airborne particles. In order to provide more information necessary for human exposure investigations, the aim of the work presented here is to investigate experimentally the variation of the ETS particle concentration and size...
Cessation among smokers of "light" cigarettes: results from the 2000 national health interview survey.
Use of light cigarettes was common and was associated with lower odds of current smoking cessation, validating the concern that smokers may use lights as an alternative to cessation....
The association between marijuana smoking and lung cancer: a systematic review.
Nineteen studies met selection criteria. Studies that examined lung cancer risk factors or premalignant changes in the lung found an association of marijuana smoking with increased tar exposure, alveolar macrophage tumoricidal dysfunction, increased oxidative stress, and bronchial mucosal histopatho...
Anaerobic cometabolic transformation of polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: evidence from laboratory and field studies.
We show that the culture can furthermore cometabolicallytransform a variety of polycyclic and heteroaromatic compounds with naphthalene or methylnaphthalene as the auxiliary substrate. Most of the cosubstrates were converted to the corresponding carboxylic acids, frequently to several isomers. The m...
Cadmium, lead, and thallium in mainstream tobacco smoke particulate
The deliveries of cadmium, thallium, and lead in mainstream smoke particulate from cigarettes with different smoke delivery designs were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in order to investigate their impact on the delivery of these known toxic compounds. Analyses showed tha...