Phase II study of antineoplastons A10 (NSC 648539) and AS2-1 (NSC 620261) in patients with recurrent glioma.
To assess the pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and efficacy of antineoplastons A10 (NSC 648539) and AS2-1 (NSC 620261). We initiated a phase II trial in order to determine whether evidence of antitumor activity of A10 and AS2-1 could be documented. Patients with anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme recurring after radiation therapy were eligible for enrollment in the trial. Patients received escalating doses of A10 and AS2-1 by multiple intermittent intravenous injections with use of a portable programmable pump to the target daily dose of 1.0 g/kg for A10 and of 0.4 g/kg for AS2-1. Nine patients were treated, in six of whom the treatment response was assessable in accordance with protocol stipulations. No patient demonstrated tumor regression. Reversible grade 2 or 3 neurocortical toxicity, consisting of transient somnolence, confusion, and exacerbation of an underlying seizure disorder, was noted in five patients. Mean steady-state plasma concentrations of phenylacetate and phenylacetylglutamine after escalation to the target doses of A10 and AS2-1 were 177+/-101 microg/mL and 302+/-102 microg/mL, respectively. Patients who exhibited confusion tended to have higher phenylacetate levels. Although we could not confirm any tumor regression in patients in this study, the small sample size precludes definitive conclusions about treatment efficacy. Antineoplaston-related toxicity was acceptable in most patients with appropriate dose modification, although severe neurocortical toxicity may occur. Steady-state plasma concentrations of phenylacetate with use of A10 and AS2-1 were similar to those reported with use of similar doses of phenylacetate alone.