Water transfer through different films, as a function of the physical state of water in contact with the film, the relative humidity difference, and the water vapor pressure difference, was investigated. The films were two synthetic packagings (hydrophobic polyethylene and hydrophilic cellophane) and an edible film. The physical state of water affects water sensitive films, such as cellophane, inducing a higher liquid water transfer due to interactions with the polymer. For hydrophobic polymers, such as polyethylene, neither the physical state of water nor the relative humidity has an influence on the water permeability. In complex system, such as an edible film composed of hydrophilic particles dispersed in a lipid phase, barrier efficiency is influenced by the continuous hydrophobic phase but could also be affected by the physical state of water due to the presence of hydrophilic compounds.
We find that a
Spatially periodic magnetic field with zero mean value can induce a single
Dirac point in a one-dimensional system with spin-orbit coupling. A wealth of
New physics may emerge due to the existence of a single Dirac point and helical
States in the bulk of a one-dimensional lattice (rat...
We investigate the amplitude and phase effects of qubit dynamics and
Excited-state population under the influence of a biharmonic control field. It
Is demonstrated that the biharmonic driving field can have a significant effect
On the behavior of quasi-energy level crossing as well as on multiphoton...
I present my views on the future of America's program in particle physics. I
discuss a variety of experimental initiatives that do have the potential to
make transformative impacts on our discipline and should be included in our
program, as well as others that do not and should not.
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