Assessment of average, population and individual bioequivalence in two- and four-period crossover studies.
The aim of bioequivalence studies is to assess the equivalence of two pharmaceutical formulations of the same active drug substance. Currently three types of bioequivalence are distinguished: average, population and individual bioequivalence. Average and population bioequivalence can be assessed in two-period (non-replicated) crossover studies, whereas individual bioequivalence requires three- or four-period replicated studies, with a preference for four-period studies. The PC-program BIOEQV80 is presented for the statistical analysis of average and population bioequivalence from two-period crossover studies. The program BIOEQ2X2 is presented for the statistical analysis of all three types of bioequivalence from four-period replicated crossover studies. The statistical aspects of population and individual bioequivalence are based on a recent Guidance issued by the US Food and Drug Administration.
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