Salinibacter ruber, an extremely halophilic member of the domain Bacteria, has two different cytoplasmic glutamate dehydrogenase activities, marked as GDHI and GDHII. GDHI showed a strong dependence on high salt concentrations for stability, but not for activity, displaying maximal activity in the absence of salts. GDHII depended on high salt concentrations for both activity and stability. It catalyzed amination of 2-oxoglutarate with optimal activity in 3 M KCl at pH 8. No activating effect was found when NaCl was replaced by KCl. Only GDHII displayed activity in the deamination reaction of glutamate with an optimal pH of 9.5. Both enzymes were activated by certain amino acids (L-leucine, L-histidine, L-phenylalanine) and by nucleotides such as ADP or ATP. A low-molecular-mass cytoplasmic fraction was found to be a highly effective activator of GDHII in the presence of high NaCl concentrations.