Variability of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. has been investigated by restriction and sequence analyses on a sample of 68 colonies from ten different subspecies. The 19 mtDNA types detected are clustered in three major phylogenetic lineages. These clades correspond well to three groups of populations with distinct geographical distributions: branch A for African subspecies (intermissa, monticola, scutellata, andansonii and capensis), branch C for North Mediterranean subspecies (caucasica, carnica and ligustica) and branch M for the West European populations (mellifera subspecies). These results partially confirm previous hypotheses based on morphometrical and allozymic studies, the main difference concerning North African populations, now assigned to branch A instead of branch M. The pattern of spatial structuring suggests the Middle East as the centre of dispersion of the species, in accordance with the geographic areas of the other species of the same genus. Based on a conservative 2% divergence rate per Myr, the separation of the three branches has been dated at about 1 Myr BP.
We have selected a group of 100 evolved planetary nebulae (PNe) and study
Their kinematics based upon spatially-resolved, long-slit, echelle
Spectroscopy. The data have been drawn from the San Pedro M\'artir Kinematic
Catalogue of PNe (L\'opez et al. 2012). The aim is to characterize in detail
We propose ResourceSync, a general Web resource
Synchronization protocol that leverages XML Sitemaps. It provides a set of
Capabilities that can be combined in a modular manner to meet local or
Community requirements. We report on work to implement this protocol for
ArXiv.org and also provide an exp...
A new phylogenetics approach and algorithm with which to chart the evolutionary history of organisms is presented. It utilizes mass spectral data produced from the proteolytic digestion of proteins, rather than partial or complete gene or translated gene sequences. The concept and va...
Pubget Updates sends you emails when Pubget finds new papers that match your search. Use Pubget Updates to get the latest articles for your specialty, written by a colleague, or published by your favorite journals.