This paper reviews the literature on health economics assessment (HEA) for liver transplantation (LT) in Europe and USA, and considers prospects in Japan where HEA is currently rarely performed. LT is one of the most expensive health technologies but the health outcome is generally good. It provides the only well-established treatment for end-stage liver disease (ESLD) in the Western world, while in Japan it has yet to be fully implemented because public acceptance is still very low. MEDLINE and Japana Centra Revuo Medicina WEB version Ver. 2 (JCRM2) were systematically used for the literature search. As a result, 6 original papers in Europe and USA that employed accurate methods for HEA were identified through MEDLINE, indicating that LT is cost-effective on long term follow-up. In Japan, however, only one study could be good which tried to estimate it's cost-effectiveness, and the methodology was different from that used in Europe and USA. Through accurate HEA for LT in Japan, we hope that this procedure may become a well-accepted health technology in the future.
Higher order mode (HOM) beam position monitors (BPM) are being developed for
the 3.9 GHz third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH. The
transverse beam position in a cavity can be determined utilizing beam-excited
HOMs based on dipole components. The existing couplers used for H...
We reexamine the physical quantities necessary
To determine the cosmic-ray ionisation rate (especially the cosmic ray spectrum
At E < 1 GeV and the ionisation cross sections), and calculate the ionisation
Rate as a function of the column density of molecular hydrogen. Available data
Support the exis...
We describe an ultracold fermionic set-up where it is possible to synthesize
A phase with symmetry obtained by locking independent invariance groups of the
Normal state. Labeling as colors two species of the mixture and as flavors the
Other two, we consider the experimentally realistic situation whe...
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