2-Methoxyacetic and 2-ethoxyacetic acids are well known toxic metabolites of 2-alkoxyethanols. The use of 2-alkoxyethanols is now restricted, and the regulations have forced manufacturers to find substitutive solvents, 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)ethanols. 2-(2-Alkoxyethoxy)ethanols resemble 2-alkoxyethanols, and their most hazardous similarity is their ability to metabolize to the 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)acetic acids.In the present study, floor lacquerers' (n=22) inhalation and total exposure to 2-(2-alkoxy)ethoxyethanols was measured. The measurements of inhalation exposure were done with charcoal tubes, and total exposure was biomonitored by urinalysis of 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)acetic acids.The 8h inhalation exposures of floor lacquerers to 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol (DEGME), 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethanol (DEGEE) and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol (DEGBE) were in average 0.23+/-0.07ppm (average+/-S.D., n=3), 0.08+/-0.07ppm (n=16), and 0.05+/-0.03ppm (n=16), respectively. The excretions of 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEAA), 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)acetic acid (EEAA) and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)acetic acid (BEAA) were in average 4.9+/-4.3mmol/mol creatinine, 9.3+/-8.0mmol/mol creatinine and 9.2+/-7.4mmol/mol creatinine, respectively. A linear relationship was found between the urinary 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)acetic acid concentrations and the preceding 8-h occupational exposure to 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)ethanol.
Studied the spectral and flux variability of IC 310 from the X-ray band to the
VHE regime. Methods. The daily light curve of IC 310 above 300 GeV has been
Measured with MAGIC from 2009 October to 2010 February. Contemporaneous
Fermi-LAT data (2008-2011) in the 10-500 GeV energy range were also an...
We study two-loop Euler-Heisenberg effective actions in three-dimensional N=2
And N=4 supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics (SQED) without Chern-Simons
Term. We find exact expressions for propagators of chiral superfields
Interacting with slowly-varying N=2 gauge superfield. Using these propagators...
We propose Markov two-components processes (M2CP) as a probabilistic model of
Asynchronous systems based on the trace semantics for concurrency. Considering
An asynchronous system distributed over two sites, we introduce concepts and
Tools to manipulate random trajectories in an asynchronous framewo...
Pubget Updates sends you emails when Pubget finds new papers that match your search. Use Pubget Updates to get the latest articles for your specialty, written by a colleague, or published by your favorite journals.