Fish otoliths are highly calcified concretions deposited in the inner ear and serve as a part of the hearing and balance systems. They consist mainly of calcium carbonate and a small amount of organic matrix. The latter component is considered to play important roles in otolith formation. Previously, we identified two major otolith matrix proteins, OMP-1 (otolith matrix protein-1) and Otolin-1, from salmonid species. To assess the function of these proteins in otolith formation, we performed antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-mediated knockdown of omp-1 and otolin-1 in zebrafish embryos. We first identified zebrafish cDNA homologs of omp-1 (zomp-1) and otolin-1 (zotolin-1). Whole-mount in situ hybridization then revealed that the expression of both zomp-1 and zotolin-1 mRNAs is restricted to the otic vesicles. zomp-1 mRNA was expressed from the 14-somite stage in the otic placode, but the zOMP-1 protein was detected only from 26-somite stage onwards. In contrast, zotolin-1 mRNA expression became clear around 72hpf. MOs designed to inhibit zomp-1 and zotolin-1 mRNA translation, respectively, were injected into 1-2 cell stage embryos. zomp-1 MO caused a reduction in otolith size and an absence of zOtolin-1 deposition, while zotolin-1 MO caused a fusion of the two otoliths, and an increased instability of otoliths after fixation. We conclude that zOMP-1 is required for normal otolith growth and deposition of zOtolin-1 in the otolith, while zOtolin-1, a collagenous protein, is involved in the correct arrangement of the otoliths onto the sensory epithelium of the inner ear and probably in stabilization of the otolith matrix.
HSS administration attenuated heart failure-induced kidney dysfunction as indicated by improvement in both glomerular and tubular defects, a finding with important clinical implications. HSS modulated the expression of tubular proteins involved in regulation of water and electrolyte homeostasis....
We study the phenomena of flavor violation, and its implications for Higgs
Signals, within the context of the Two-Higgs doublet model with Textures
(2HDM-Tx). Unlike previous works, where the set of Yukawa matrices are assumed
To have the same form (parallel textures), we study combinations of Yukaw...
We consider the classical limit of the recently obtained exact result for the
Anomalous dimension of a cusped Wilson line with the insertion of an operator
With L units of R-charge at the cusp in planar N=4 SYM. The classical limit
Requires taking both the 't Hooft coupling and L to infinity. Since...
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