Fatty acids and expression of adipokines
Adipose tissue has been recognised as the quantitatively most important energy store of the human body for many years, in addition to its functions as mechanical and thermic insulator. In mammals, the adipose organ is localised in several depots including white as well as brown adipose tissues. The largest depots are found subcutaneously and in the abdominal region. Several secretory proteins are synthesised in adipose tissue including leptin, resistin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), angiotensinogen, adipsin, acylation-stimulating protein, retinol-binding protein (RBP), interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), fasting-induced adipose factor, fibrinogen-angiopoietin-related protein, metallothionein, tissue factor (TF), complement C3, fibronectin, haptoglobin, entactin/nidogen, collagen VI α 3, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide (HCNP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and adiponutrin. Fatty acids may influence the expression of adipokines like leptin, resistin or adiponectin directly by interaction with transcription factors, or indirectly via unknown mechanisms possibly linked to fatty acid oxidation, synthesis or storage. Because fatty acids are the main components of adipose tissue, it is of essential interest to clarify the biological effects of different types of fatty acids on the expression of relevant adipokines.