Arterial input functions for dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI: requirements and signal options.
Cerebral perfusion imaging using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) has been the subject of considerable research and shows promise for basic science and clinical use. In DSC, the MRI signals in brain tissue and feeding arteries are monitored dynamically in response to a bolus injection of paramagnetic agents, such as gadolinium (Gd) chelates. DSC has the potential to allow quantitative imaging of parameters such as cerebral blood flow (CBF) with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in a short scan time; however, quantitation depends critically on accurate and precise measurement of the arterial input function (AIF). We discuss many requirements and factors that make it difficult to measure the AIF. The AIF signal should be linear with respect to Gd concentration, convertible to the same concentration scale as the tissue signal, and independent of hematocrit. Complicated relationships between signal and concentration can violate these requirements. The additional requirements of a high SNR and high spatial/temporal resolution are technically challenging. AIF measurements can also be affected by signal saturation and aliasing, as well as dispersion/delay between the AIF sampling site and the tissue. We present new in vivo preliminary results for magnitude-based (DeltaR2*) and phase-based (Deltaphi) AIF measurements that show a linearity advantage of phase, and a disparity in the scaling of Deltaphi AIFs, DeltaR2* AIFs, and DeltaR2* tissue curves. Finally, we discuss issues related to the choice of AIF signal for quantitative perfusion imaging.
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