Engineered superoxide dismutase monomers for superoxide biosensor applications.
Because of its high reaction rate and specificity, the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) offers great potential for the sensitive quantification of superoxide radicals in electrochemical biosensors. In this work, monomeric mutants of human Cu,Zn-SOD were engineered to contain one or two additional cysteine residues, which could be used to bind the protein to gold surfaces, thus making the use of promotor molecules unnecessary. Six mutants were successfully designed, expressed, and purified. All mutants bound directly to unmodified gold surfaces via the sulfur of the cysteine residues and showed a quasi-reversible, direct electron transfer to the electrode. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the electron transfer were characterized and showed only slight variations between the individual mutants. For one of the mutants, the interaction with the superoxide radical was studied in more detail. For both partial reactions of the dismutation, an interaction between protein and radical could be shown. In an amperometric biosensorial approach, the SOD-mutant electrode was successfully applied for the detection of superoxide radicals. In the oxidation region, the electrode surpassed the sensitivity of the commonly used cytochrome c electrodes by approximately 1 order of magnitude while not being limited by interferences, but the electrode did not fully reach the sensitivity of dimeric Cu,Zn-SOD immobilized on MPA-modified gold.
Version: za2963e q8za5 q8zb6 q8zc3 q8zde q8zee q8zf8 q8zg2