Probing SWI/SNF remodeling of the nucleosome by unzipping single DNA molecules.

Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 13(6):549 (2006) PMID 16732285

Chromatin-remodeling enzymes can overcome strong histone-DNA interactions within the nucleosome to regulate access of DNA-binding factors to the genetic code. By unzipping individual DNA duplexes, each containing a uniquely positioned nucleosome flanked by long segments of DNA, we directly probed histone-DNA interactions. The resulting disruption-force signatures were characteristic of the types and locations of interactions and allowed measurement of the positions of nucleosomes with 2.6-base-pair (bp) precision. Nucleosomes remodeled by yeast SWI/SNF were moved bidirectionally along the DNA, resulting in a continuous position distribution. The characteristic distance of motion was approximately 28 bp per remodeling event, and each event occurred with a catalytic efficiency of 0.4 min(-1) per nM SWI/SNF. Remodeled nucleosomes had essentially identical disruption signatures to those of unremodeled nucleosomes, indicating that their overall structure remained canonical. These results impose substantial constraints on the mechanism of SWI/SNF remodeling.