Functional connectivity of frontal cortex in healthy and ADHD children reflected in EEG coherence.
Abnormal functional brain connectivity is a candidate factor in developmental brain disorders associated with cognitive dysfunction. We analyzed a substantial (10 min per subject) record of dense array electroencephalography with spectral power and coherence methods in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 42) and control (n = 21) 10- to 13-year-old children. We found topographically distinct narrow band coherence differences between subject groups: ADHD subjects showed elevated coherence in the lower alpha (8 Hz) band and reduced coherence in the upper alpha (10-11 Hz) band. The 8-Hz ADHD elevation and a 2- to 6-Hz control group coherence elevation were independent of stimulus presentation. In response to visual stimulation, the ADHD group exhibited reduced evoked potential power and elevated frontal coherence. Only the upper alpha band control group coherence elevation discriminated according to ADHD group medication status. The findings suggest a static state of deficient connectivity in ADHD and a stimulus-induced state of overconnectivity within and between frontal hemispheres.
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