Tumor suppressor p53 is essential for checkpoint control in response to a variety of genotoxic stresses. DNA damage leads to phosphorylation on the Ser/Thr-Pro motifs of p53, which facilitates interaction with Pin1, a pSer/pThr-Pro-specific peptidyl prolyl isomerase. Pin1 is required for the timely activation of p53, resulting in apoptosis or cell cycle arrest. To investigate the physiological relationship between Pin1 and p53, we created Pin1-/-p53-/- mice. These p53-deficient mice spontaneously developed lymphomas, mainly of thymic origin, as well as generalized lymphoma infiltration into other organs, including the liver, kidneys and lungs. Ablation of Pin1, in addition to p53, accelerated the thymic hyperplasia, but the thymocytes in these Pin1-/-p53-/- mice did not infiltrate other organs. The thymocytes in 12-week-old Pin1-/-p53-/- mice were CD4(-)CD8(-) (double negative) and had significantly higher levels of the intracellular form of Notch1 (NIC) than the thymocytes of p53-/- or wild-type mice. Presenilin-1, a cleavage enzyme for NIC generation from full-length Notch1 was increased in the thymocytes of Pin1-/-p53-/- mice. Pin1 depletion also inhibited the degradation of NIC by proteasomes. These results suggest that both Pin1 and p53 control the normal proliferation and differentiation of thymocytes by regulating the NIC level.